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Ecosystem: An ecosystem refers to a community of living organisms interacting with each other and their physical environment. It includes both biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. Examples include forests, oceans, grasslands, and wetlands.

Biodiversity: Biodiversity refers to the variety of life forms on Earth, including plants, animals, microorganisms, and their habitats. It is essential for ecosystem stability, as each species plays a unique role in maintaining the balance of nature.

Climate Change: Climate change refers to long-term alterations in temperature patterns and weather conditions, primarily due to human activities, such as burning fossil fuels and deforestation. It leads to rising global temperatures, sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and other environmental impacts.

Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or contaminants into the environment, causing adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. Types of pollution include air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, noise pollution, and light pollution.

Conservation: Conservation involves the sustainable use and management of natural resources to ensure their long-term availability. It includes measures like protecting endangered species, preserving habitats, promoting sustainable practices, and reducing waste and pollution.

Renewable Energy: Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydroelectric, and geothermal power, offer alternatives to fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. They play a crucial role in mitigating climate change and promoting sustainable development.

Waste Management: Effective waste management involves proper disposal, recycling, and reduction of waste to minimize environmental impact. It includes practices like waste segregation, recycling programs, composting, and the promotion of the circular economy.

Deforestation: Deforestation refers to the clearing or removal of forests and trees. It leads to habitat loss, biodiversity decline, increased greenhouse gas emissions, soil erosion, and disruptions to local ecosystems. Afforestation and reforestation efforts are important for restoring and conserving forests.

Water Conservation: Water conservation aims to preserve and protect water resources by reducing water wastage and promoting efficient use. It includes measures like rainwater harvesting, water recycling, efficient irrigation systems, and public awareness campaigns.

Sustainable Development: Sustainable development is the concept of meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves balancing economic growth with social development and environmental protection.

These are just a few key points on the environment. Environmental issues are complex and interconnected, requiring collective efforts to address and promote a sustainable and healthy planet.

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Important ENVIRONMENT Question And Answer

Q1.Which one of the following is an important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity?

(A) Wild Life Sanctuaries

(B) National Parks

(C) Botanical Gardens

(D) Biosphere Reserves

Ans.(D) Biosphere Reserves

Q2.Which one of the following trees is considered to be an environmental hazard?

(A) Eucalyptus

(B) Babool

(C) Neem

(D) Amaltas

Ans.(A) Eucalyptus


Q3.The greenhouse effect is mostly caused by

(A) Ozone layer

(B) Moisture in the atmosphere

(C) Infra-red radiation

(D) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

Ans. (D) Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere


Q4.Which one of the following adopted “Agenda 21”?

(A) Kyoto Protocol

(B) Montreal Protocol

(C) Summit on Sustainable Development

(D) First Earth Summit

Ans.(D) First Earth Summit


Q5.Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

(A) Nitrogen

(B) Methane

(C) Nitrous oxide

(D) Carbon dioxide

Ans.(A) Nitrogen


Q6.Which one of the following is the best source of generating electricity in India from the viewpoint of sustainable development?

(A) Atomic energy

(B) Coal

(C) Mineral oil and gas

(D) Hydroelectricity

Ans.(D) Hydro electricity


Q7.The use of fossil fuels is responsible for the increase in the amount of which gas in the atmosphere?

(A) Argon

(B) Carbon dioxide

(C) Ozone

(D) Nitrogen

Ans.(B) Carbon dioxide


Q8.The Ramsar Convention is associated with the conservation of

(A) Wet lands

(B) Drylands

(C) Forests

(D) Biofuels

Ans.(A) Wet lands


Q9.The greatest diversity of animal and plant species occurs in

(A) Equatorial forests

(B) Deserts and Savanna

(C) Temperature deciduous forests

(D) Tropical moist forests

Ans.(A) Equatorial forests


Q10.In a food chain, the solar energy utilized by plants is only

(A) 1.0%

(B) 10%

(C) 0.01%

(D) 0.1%

Ans.(A) 1.0%


Q11.The transitional zone between two distinct communities is known as

(A) Ecotone

(B) Ecotype

(C) Ecade

(D) Ecosphere

Ans.(A) Ecotone


Q12.Which one among the following is not an endangered bird in India?

(A) Forest Owlet

(B) Mallard

(C) Great Indian Bustard

(D) White-bellied Heron

Ans.(B) Mallard


Q13.Chipko movement was basically against

(A) Cultural pollution

(B) Deforestation

(C) Noise pollution

(D) Water pollution

Ans.(B) Deforestation


Q14.Global-500 Award is given for achievement in the field of

(A) Population control

(B) Movement against terrorism

(C) Movement against narcotics

(D) Environmental protection

Ans.(D) Environmental protection


Q15.The loss of biodiversity is due to

(A) Destruction of forests

(B) Environmental pollution

(C) The destruction of natural baits of the organism

(D) All of the above

Ans.(D) All of the above


Q16.In an ecosystem, a stable group is called

(A) Succession

(B) Seral

(C) Climax

(D) Ecotone

Ans.(D) Ecotone


Q17.Which of the following is not helpful in maintaining ecological stability?

(A) Ecosystem diversity

(B) Homeostatic mechanism

(C) Ecosystem complexity

(D) Ecosystem uniformity

Ans.(D) Ecosystem uniformity


Q18.Which of the following is not a water pollutant?

(A) Sulphur dioxide

(B) Zinc

(C) Copper

(D) Nickel

Ans.(C) Coppe


Q19.Acid rain is caused due to air pollution by

(A) Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide

(B) Carbon dioxide

(C) Carbon monoxide

(D) Methane

Ans. (A) Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide


Q20.Which of the following components of the ecosystem acts as an intermediatory between biotic and abiotic components?

(A) Habitat

(B) Decomposer

(C) Consumer

(D) Producer

Ans.(D) Producer


Q21.What term denotes the organisms getting their food from others?

(A) Autotrophs

(B) Heterotrophs

(C) Synthesizers

(D) Producers

Ans.(B) Heterotrophs


Q22.The Ozone layer restricts

(A) Ultraviolet radiation

(B) X-rays and Gamma rays

(C) Infrared radiation

(D) Visible light

Ans.(A) Ultraviolet radiation


Q23.Among the biotic components of the ecosystem, the producer system is

(A) Green plants

(B) Tiger

(C) Cow

(D) Peacock

Ans.(A) Green plants


Q24.The maximum biodiversity is found in

(A) Arctic forests

(B) Tropical rainforests

(C) Temperate forests

(D) Coniferous forests

Ans.(B) Tropical rain forests


Q25.Which of the following is designated as the “lungs of the world”?

(A) Equatorial evergreen forests

(B) Taiga forests

(C) Mid-latitudes mixed forests

(D) Mangrove forests

Ans.(A) Equatorial evergreen forests


Q26.Global warming is caused due to the emission of

(A) Hydrocarbon

(B) Carbon monoxide

(C) Carbon dioxide

(D) Nitrogen

Ans.(C) Carbon dioxide


Q27.An artificial ecosystem is represented by

(A) Aquarium

(B) Agriculture land

(C) Pisciculture tank

(D) Zoo

Ans.(A) Aquarium


Q28.Which one of the following is a part of the Geological cycle?

(A) Hydrological cycle

(B) Nitrogen cycle

(C) Hydrogen cycle

(D) Carbon cycle

Ans.(A) Hydrological cycle


Q29.Which one of the following energy is most utilized in biomass?

(A) Tidal energy

(B) Geothermal energy

(C) Solar energy

(D) Atomic energy

Ans.(C) Solar energy


Q30.The word ‘Ecology’ was coined in 1866 by

(A) Ernst Haeckel

(B) Charles Darwin

(C) Robert Whittaker

(D) Arthur Tansley

Ans.(A) Ernst Haeckel


Q31.Which one of the following is related to ozone formation?

(A) Photosynthesis process

(B) Photochemical process

(C) Chemosynthesis process

(D) Hydrolysis process

Ans.(B) Photochemical process


Q32.Solar radiation plays the most important role in the

(A) Water cycle

(B) Nitrogen cycle

(C) Carbon cycle

(D) Oxygen cycle

Ans.(A) Water cycle


Q33.The author of Green Development is

(A) M.J. Bradshaw

(B) M. Nicolson

(C) W.M. Adams

(D) R.H. Whittaker

Ans.(C) W.M. Adams


Q34.Lichens are the best indicator of

(A) Noise pollution

(B) Soil pollution

(C) Water pollution

(D) Air pollution

Ans.(D) Air pollution


Q35.The term ‘ecosystem’ was enunciated by

(A) A.G. Tansley

(B) E.P. Odum

(C) G. Mendel

(D) C.C. Park

Ans.(A) A.G. Tansley


Q36.Mangrove forests in Asia are largely concentrated in

(A) Philippines

(B) Indonesia

(C) Malaysia

(D) India

Ans.(B) Indonesia


Q37. The biotic component of the environment does not include

(A) Micro-organism system

(B) Plant system

(C) Animal system

(D) Soil system

Ans.(D) Soil system


Q38.Which one of the following ecosystems is known as the ‘Land of Big Games’?

(A) Prairie

(B) Taiga

(C) Savannah

(D) Selvas

Ans.(C) Savannah


Q39.The National Environment Research Institute is located at

(A) Dehradun

(B) New Delhi

(C) Jaipur

(D) Nagpur

Ans.(D) Nagpur


Q40.he uses of CFCs are –


(B)Aerosol propellants


(D)All of the above

Ans.(D)All of the above…

1. There are days and nights on Earth?
(A) due to daily speed
(B) Due to annual speed
(C) Due to the half-speed
(D) Due to quarterly pace

Answer. A
2. Which is the largest planet?
(A) Jupiter
(B) Earth
(C) Uranus
(D) Venus

Answer. A
3. Which is the smallest planet?
(A) Mars
(B) Saturn
(C) Mercury
(D) Neptoon

Answer. C
4. Agulhas stream is formed in which ocean?
(A) Pacific Ocean
(B) In the Indian Ocean
(C) Arctic Ocean
(D) Others

Answer. B
5. The core of the earth’s inner core is made up of
(A) Copper and Zinc
(B) Nickel and copper
(C) Iron and zinc
(D) Iron and Nickel

Answer. D
6. India ranks second in manganese production, which is the first country?
(A) France
(B) Russian Federation
(C) Canada
(D) United States

Answer. B
7. Which of the following countries is the largest producer of coal?
(A) Brazil
(B) India
(C) America
(D) China

Answer. C
8. Who among them is called Manchester of Japan?
(A) Osaka
(B) Tokyo
(C) Nagasaki
(D) Yokohama

Answer. A
9. During the independence struggle of India, who founded the institution called ‘Deccan Educational Society’?
(A) Jawaharlal Nehru
(B) Rabindra Nath Tagore
(C) Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(D) Vyomesh Chandra Banerjee

Answer. C
10. Who was the Governor General of India at the time of the mutiny of 1857?
(A) Lord Canning
(B) Neil Armstrong
(C) John Mathai
(D) Others

Answer. A

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