Objective Geography for Competitive Exams RAS
Introduction to Geography:
Geography is the study of the Earth’s landscapes, environments, and the relationships between people and their surroundings.
It is divided into two main branches: physical geography (natural features and processes) and human geography (human activities and their impact on the environment).
Earth’s Structure and Composition:
The Earth is composed of several layers, including the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust.
The lithosphere is the rigid outer layer of the Earth, consisting of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle.
Plate tectonics is the theory that explains the movement of the Earth’s lithospheric plates.
These plates float on the semi-fluid asthenosphere and interact with each other, leading to various geological phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain formation.
Landforms are natural features on the Earth’s surface, shaped by various processes like erosion, deposition, and tectonic activity.
Examples include mountains, valleys, plateaus, plains, deserts, and rivers.
Climate and Weather:
Climate refers to the long-term patterns of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and other atmospheric conditions in a particular region.
Weather describes the short-term and day-to-day atmospheric conditions.
Biomes and Ecosystems:
Biomes are large ecological regions with characteristic plant and animal communities, determined by climate and geography.
Ecosystems are smaller ecological units within biomes, where living organisms interact with their non-living environment.
Hydrology is the study of water on Earth, including its distribution, movement, and properties.
The hydrologic cycle involves processes such as evaporation, condensation, precipitation, runoff, and groundwater flow.
Population and Migration:
Human geography examines the distribution, density, and migration of human populations.
Factors influencing population distribution include climate, resources, and economic opportunities.
Cultural geography explores the relationship between human culture and the physical environment.
It includes the study of languages, religions, customs, traditions, and spatial patterns of human activities.
Urbanization and Urban Geography:
Urban geography focuses on the study of cities, their growth, development, and spatial organization.
Urbanization refers to the increasing proportion of the population living in urban areas.
Remember, geography is a diverse and dynamic subject with many specialized areas of study. These notes provide a starting point, and you can delve deeper into specific topics that interest you.
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Most Important Geography Question Answer
1.What is the southernmost point of India?
Ans: Pygmalion or Indira Point in Andaman & Nicobar Islands
2.What is the length of the coastline of the country including Lakshdweep and Andaman & Nicobar islands?
Ans: 7516 Km
3.What is the Standard Meridian of India ?
Ans: 82∘ 30′
4.With which country India shares its longest border?
5.Which channel separates Andaman and Nicobar Group?
Ans: 10 Degree Channel
6.Which is the only Indus river tributary which flows entirely in India?
Ans: River Beas
7.Where did the Ganga river originate from?
Ans: Gangotri glacier, Uttarakhand
8.What is the route of National Waterway 2 that is on Brahmaputra river?
Ans: Dhubri to Sadiya
9.In which soil is the process of self ploughing found?
Ans: Black soil
10.Red soils are red in colour due to the presence of ___
Ans: Iron Oxides
11.Which types of crops are mainly grown in Laterite soils?
Ans: Plantation Crops like tea, coffee
12.Where does the eastern ghats and western ghats meet?
13.What is the highest peak in South India?
14.What are the Coastal plains from Daman to Goa called?
Ans: Konkan coast
15.Which channel separates Minicoy island from the main Lakshadweep?
Ans: Nine Degree channel
16.Winter rain in Chennai is caused by____
Ans: North East Monsoon
17.Which type of climate has the characteristic of seasonal reversal of winds?
Ans: Monsoon Climate
18.Where is the Nokrek Biosphere Reserve located?
19.How many biosphere reserves are in India?
20.Where is the Kakrapara Nuclear plant located?
21.Where was the India’s first cotton textile mill setup?
Ans: Mumbai, 1854
22.Where was the India’s first Jute mill setup?
Ans: Rishra near kolkata in 1855
23.Which is the longest National Highway in the Country?
Ans: NH7 connecting Varanasi to Kanyakumari
24.Which state has the largest length of national highways?
Ans: Uttar Pradesh
25.Where is the headquarters of South-Eastern Railway zone?
26.Which state has the highest urban population?
27.What are the left bank tributaries of river Godavari?
Ans: Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Indravati and Sabri.
28.Which direction flowing rivers generally form estuaries at their mouth?
Ans: West flowing rivers
29.Sardar sarovar dam is constructed on the river___
30.Which country is separated from india through narrow Palk Strait?
Ans: Sri Lanka
31.Name the states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes through
Ans: Mizoram, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, West Bengal, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh & Tripura
32.Where does the rivers Beas and Sutlej meet?
33.Which river originates from the northern hills of Dandakaranya, Raipur, Chattisgarh?
34.Which state has the largest forest cover in the Country?
Ans: Madhya Pradesh
35.Where are the Naharkatiya and Digboi mines located in the country?
36.Which is the largest cotton producing state in the country?
37.Which states are drained by the Cauvery river?
Ans: Karnataka, Kerala, Puducherry and Tamil Nadu
38.Which coastal plains have backwaters locally called Kayals?
Ans: Malabar coast
39.What is the zone of low pressure called where Northeast trade winds and southeast trade winds converge?
Ans: Inter Tropical Convergence Zone
40.What type of crops are grown in Rabi season?
Ans: Wheat, gram, barley, potato, oil seeds such as linseed, rapeseed and mustard
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