Objective Geography for Competitive Exams {IAS}

Objective Geography for Competitive Exams {IAS}

Objective Geography for Competitive Exams {IAS}

Hello Aspirants,

1. Introduction to Geography:

Geography is the study of the Earth’s landscapes, environments, and the relationship between people and their surroundings.
It is divided into two main branches: physical geography and human geography.
2. Physical Geography:

Physical geography studies the Earth’s natural processes and landforms.
It includes topics such as geomorphology (study of landforms), climatology (study of climate), biogeography (study of ecosystems), hydrology (study of water bodies), and soil geography.
3. Earth’s Structure and Landforms:

The Earth is composed of different layers: core, mantle, and crust.
Landforms are the natural features on the Earth’s surface, such as mountains, plains, plateaus, valleys, and deserts.
4. Climate and Weather:

Climate refers to the long-term patterns of temperature, humidity, precipitation, and wind in a region.
Weather describes short-term atmospheric conditions.
5. Biomes and Ecosystems:

Biomes are large geographical areas characterized by their distinct climate, vegetation, and animal life.
Ecosystems are smaller units within biomes, where living organisms interact with their physical environment.
6. Oceans and Seas:

The Earth’s oceans cover about 71% of its surface and play a crucial role in regulating climate and supporting marine life.
Major oceanic features include ocean currents, tides, and coral reefs.
7. Population Geography:

Population geography studies the distribution, density, and migration of human populations.
It explores the factors influencing population growth and its impact on resources and development.
8. Settlement Geography:

Settlement geography examines the patterns and types of human settlements, such as cities, towns, and rural areas.
It analyzes factors that influence settlement locations, urbanization, and land use.
9. Economic Geography:

Economic geography investigates the spatial distribution of economic activities, resources, industries, and trade.
It explores how geography influences economic development and globalization.
10. Cultural Geography:

Cultural geography studies the relationship between culture and the environment.
It explores how cultural practices, beliefs, and traditions influence landscapes and human interactions with nature.
11. Geopolitics and International Relations:

Geopolitics examines the relationship between geography, political power, and international relations.
It analyzes how geographical factors influence the interactions between nations.
12. Environmental Geography:

Environmental geography focuses on the study of the environment, natural resources, and sustainability.
It addresses issues like climate change, deforestation, pollution, and conservation efforts.
These notes provide an overview of the diverse topics covered in geography. Geography plays a crucial role in understanding the Earth’s physical and human processes, as well as their interactions. It helps us make informed decisions about resource management, urban planning, environmental protection, and international relations.

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Most Important Geography Question Answer

1.Which of the following is not a land locked country of Europe?
[A] Hungary
[B] Kosovo
[C] Czech Republic
[D] Spain

Answer: D [ Spain ]
Spain is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. The country’s mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. Hungary, Kosovo and Czech Republic are land locked countries in Central Europe.

2.Which of the following mountain ranges is not present in Europe?
[A] Apennine Mountain Range
[B] Pyrenees Mountain Range
[C] Sierra Nevada Mountain Range
[D] Alps Mountain range

Answer: C [ Sierra Nevada Mountain Range ]
Sierra is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province. It runs 400 miles (640 km) north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles (110 km) across east-to-west.

3.Who is known as father of geography?
[A] Plato
[B] Aristotle
[C] Ptolemy
[D] Eratosthenes

Answer: D [Eratosthenes]
Eratosthenes coined the word Geography. Geo means- Earth; Graphos means- Description; Geography means- Earth description. Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth and also tilt axis of the Earth. He is known as Father of Geography.

4.Which among the following starts represent the Morning and Evening Stars?
[A] Mercury, Venus
[B] Venus, Mercury
[C] Venus, Venus
[D] Mercury, Mercury

Answer: C [Venus, Venus]
Sometimes Venus appears in the eastern sky before sunrise. Sometimes it appears in the western sky just after sunset. Therefore it is often called a morning or an evening star, although it is not a star.

5.Mars appears red because of presence of the following compounds on its surface?
[A] Copper Oxide
[B] Iron Oxide
[C] Copper Sulphide
[D] Magnesium Oxide

Answer: B [Iron Oxide]
Mars is known as the red planet because it looks red from Earth. The reddish color comes from the high concentration of iron oxide compounds—that is, rust—in the rocks of the Martian surface.

6.Europa is the moon of which among the following planets?
[A] Saturn
[B] Jupiter
[C] Mars
[D] Uranus

Answer: B [Jupiter]
Europa is an icy moon of the planet Jupiter. It has long been a high priority for its exploration because it holds a salty liquid water ocean beneath its icy crust. The ultimate aim of NASA’s Europa Clipper mission is to determine if Europa is habitable.

7.Lithosphere includes the crust and the uppermost mantle, which constitute the hard and rigid outer layer of the planet in the range of 0 to _______?
[A] 10 km
[B] 20 km
[C] 200 km
[D] 800 km

Answer: C [200 km]
It consists of three main layers: crust, mantle and core. The crust and solid mantle ranges from 0 to 200km. Th liquid mantle is there from 200 to about 2900km.

8.Which among the following is a Dependency of United States?
[A] Clipperton
[B] Puerto Rico
[C] Aruba
[D] Montserrat

Answer: B [Puerto Rico]
Puerto Rico is the country dependency of United States. Puerto Rico is a Caribbean island and unincorporated U.S. territory with a landscape of mountains, waterfalls and the El Yunque tropical rainforest.

9.The International Space Station is located in which among the following orbits?
[A] Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
[B] Medium Earth orbit (MEO)
[C] Intermediate Circular Orbit (ICO)
[D] Geostationary Orbit (GEO).

Answer: A [Low Earth Orbit (LEO)]
The International Space Station is a modular space station in low Earth orbit. The ISS program is a multi-national collaborative project between five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA. It is an international collaborative effort between multiple countries.

10.Seasons on Earth are caused due to:
[A] Earth’s rotation
[B] Earth’s axial tilt on its axis
[C] Earth’s axial tilt and its rotation on its axis
[D] Earth’s axial tilt and its revolution around the Sun

Answer: D [ Earth’s axial tilt and its revolution around the Sun]
Fourth option is the correct answer. Earth’s axial tilt is around 23.44 degrees.

11.Which among the following is not a type of the biological weathering?
[A] Organic activity by Lichen and algae
[B] Oxidation
[C] Burrowing by animals
[D] Plant roots

Answer: B [Oxidation ]
Biological weathering is the disintegration or decay of rocks and minerals caused by chemical or physical agents of organisms.
It includes : organic activity from lichen and algae, rock disintegration by plant or root growth, burrowing and tunneling organisms and acid secretion
Oxidation is a type of chemical weathering of rocks.

12.The change of color of a rock to a rusty reddish-orange appearance is due to which of the following process?
[A] Solution
[B] Carbonation
[C] Oxidation
[D] Hydrolysis

Answer: C [Oxidation]
Oxidation occurs when oxygen and water react with iron-rich minerals. Due to this process, minerals in the rock will change colors, taking on a rusty, reddish-orange appearance.

13.What does the ‘denude’ in the term denudation mean?
[A] To flow
[B] To run
[C] To erode
[D] To strip off

Answer: D [To strip off]
All the exogenic forces are covered under the term Denudation. The word ‘denude’ means to strip off or to uncover.

14.Which among the following is the largest natural arch?
[A] Xianren Bridge
[B] London Bridge
[C] Paradise point
[D] Arch creek

Answer: A [Xianren Bridge]
Natural Arch or a Natural bridge or a rock bridge is a natural bridge formation whereby an arch is formed with an opening underneath. They are formed where island cliffs, fins or stacks are subject to erosion, weathering by seas, rivers etc. Xianren Bridge, China is the largest natural arch.

15.What is the stretch of a river or stream in which the water depth is above average and the water velocity is below average called?
[A] Plunge pool
[B] Marsh
[C] Stream pool
[D] Ocean

Answer: C [Stream pool]
Stream pool is a hydrological feature where a river or stream is characterised by above average water depth and below average water velocity.

16.Which among the following is not a feature of complex crater?
[A] It is a type of large impact crater morphology
[B] They have uplifted centres
[C] They typically have broad, flat and deep crater floors
[D] They have terraced walls

Answer: C [They typically have broad, flat and deep crater floors]
Complex crater is an impact landform formed due to collision of large astronomical object leading to a considerable impact. They are a type of large impact crater morphology. They have uplifted centres. They typically have broad, flat and shallow crater floors and terraced walls.

17.Which among the following pairs of slope landforms is/are correctly matched?
Rock shelter – A shallow cave-like opening at the base of a cliff.
Plain – Extensive flat region that generally does not vary much in elevation
Ravine – An area of a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain
Col – The lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1, 2 & 4
[B] Only 1 & 2
[C] Only 1, 2 & 3
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Answer: A [Only 1, 2 & 4]
Ravine is a small valley often the product of stream cutting erosion. It is larger than gullies but smaller than valleys.
Plateau is an area of a highland, usually of relatively flat terrain.

18.What is a type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock called?
[A] Cinder cone
[B] Caldera
[C] Cryovolcano
[D] Spatter cone

Answer: C [Cryovolcano]
A type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock is called a Cryovolcano. It is informally called as Ice volcano.

19.Which among the following peaks is situated in the Alaskan Range?
[A] Mt. Whitney
[B] Mt. Blanc
[C] Mt. Mckinley
[D] Mt. Elbert

Answer: C [Mt. Mckinley ]
Mt Mckinley also known as Denali is the highest peak in North America. It is situated in the Alaskan Range in the North America.

20.Which among the following Plateaus is also known as ‘Asia Minor’?
[A] Tibetan Plateau
[B] Deccan Plateau
[C] Anatolian Plateau
[D] Loess Plateau

Answer: C [Anatolian Plateau ]
The Anatolian Plateau in Turkey is also known as the Asia Minor. It is famous for best quality wool producing goat called as the Angora goats.

21.What are disappearing lakes found in limestone areas called?
[A] Turlough
[B] Mogote
[C] Stalagmite
[D] Stalactite

Answer: A [Turlough]
Karst landforms are a type of topography formed due to dissolution of soluble rocks like limestone, dolomite and gypsum.
Turlough or turlach is a type of disappearing lake found in limestone areas. The word tur in Turlough mean ‘dry’. These landforms are found in irish karst areas.

22.Which among the following is a closed hydrological systems?
[A] Exorheic basin
[B] Endorheic basin
[C] Perennial basin
[D] Eupheral basin

Answer: B [Endorheic basin]
Endorheic basins are basins which have a limited drainage and which normally retains water. It does not allow the outflow to other external bodies like rivers or oceans. They are closed hydrological systems.

23.Which is largest freshwater lake by volume in the world?
[A] Lake Michigan
[B] Lake Tanganyika
[C] Lake Baikal
[D] Lake Victoria

Answer: C [Lake Baikal]
Lake Baikal in Russia is the deepest lake in the world. It is the largest volume freshwater lake in the world.

24.Which among the following statements is not correct about the coastal city Rio de Janeiro?
[A] It is known as the Marvelous city
[B] It is Brazil’s second largest city
[C] It is dedicated to the fallen soldiers of World War I
[D] It is famous for the 98 feet high ‘Christ the Redeemer’.

Answer: C [It is dedicated to the fallen soldiers of World War I]
The coastal city Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’s second largest city is known as Cidade Maravilhosa meaning ‘Marvelous City’. It is famous for the 98 feet high ‘Christ the Redeemer’.
The Great Ocean Road is a 243 kilometres coastal route in Australia. It is dedicated to the fallen soldiers of World War I.

25.Which among the following passes is located at the trijunction of India, China and Myanmar?
[A] Bom Di La
[B] Nathu La
[C] Dipher
[D] Dihang

Answer: C [Dipher ]
The Dipher pass is located at the trijunction of India, China and Myanmar. It is an important trade route between India and Myanmar and remains open throughout the year.

26.In which among the following countries is the Lut Desert located?
[A] Iran
[B] Iraq
[C] Afghanistan
[D] Pakistan

Answer: A [Iran ]
The Lut Desert also known as the Dasht-e Lut Desert is a large desert located in Iran. It is the world’s 25th-largest desert and is included on UNESCO’s World Heritage List. It covers an area of 51,800 square kilometres.

27.Which among the following regions receive Frontal precipitation?
[A] The mid-latitude regions experiencing the convergence of warm tropical and cold polar air masses
[B] Topical and warm temperate regions
[C] Along the mountain side in the western coast and northeast parts of India
[D] In the interiors of the continents during the summer season when the temperature of these regions rises quickly

Answer: A [The mid-latitude regions experiencing the convergence of warm tropical and cold polar air masses]
Frontal precipitation occurs when a front or boundary line is formed between two air masses of contrasting temperature. Along the fronts, the warm air rises above the denser cold air. The mid-latitude regions experiencing the convergence of warm tropical and cold polar air masses are important areas receiving frontal precipitation.

28.Which among the following pairs of cyclones and their associated names is/are correctly matched?
Western Australia – Willy-willies
South China Sea – Hurricanes
Atlantic – Typhoons
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1
[B] Only 2 & 3
[C] Only 1 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3

Answer: A [Only 1]
Cyclone are called by different names in different regions:
Indian Ocean – Cyclones
Atlantic – Hurricanes
Western Pacific and South China Sea – Typhoons
Western Australia – Willy-willies

29.Where is the Wyville Thomson Ridge located?
[A] Atlantic Ocean
[B] Pacific Ocean
[C] Indian Ocean
[D] Arctic Ocean

Answer: A [Atlantic Ocean ]
The Wyville Thomson Ridge is a bathymetric feature of the North Atlantic Ocean floor, located between the Faroe Islands and Scotland. It is approximately 20km wide and 70km long.

30.Which among the following continents border the Pacific Ocean?
North America
South America
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1, 3 & 5
[B] Only 1, 2 & 3
[C] Only 1, 2, 3 & 5
[D] 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5

Answer: C [Only 1, 2, 3 & 5]
The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean in the Earth covering one-third area. It is bounded by the continents of Asia and Australia in the west and the North and South America in the east.

31.Which among the following relief feature links the the continental shelf and the ocean basins?
[A] Continental Rise
[B] Mid-oceanic Ridges
[C] Oceanic Trenches
[D] Continental Slope

Answer: D [Continental Slope]
The continental slope links the continental shelf and the ocean basins. It starts where the bottom of the continental shelf abruptly drops off into a steep slope.

32.What is an organic deposit made by living or dead organisms that forms a mound or rocky elevation like a ridge?
[A] Shoal
[B] Atoll
[C] Reef
[D] Trench

Answer: C [Reef]
Reef is an organic deposit made by living or dead organisms that forms a mound or rocky elevation like a ridge. are a characteristic feature of the Pacific Ocean where they are associated with seamounts and guyots. The largest reef in the world is found off the Queensland coast of Australia.

33.Which among the following factors influence the salinity of ocean water?
Ocean Currents
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1, 2 & 5
[B] Only 4 & 5
[C] 1, 2, 4 & 5
[D] 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5

Answer: D [1, 2, 3, 4 & 5]
Salinity means the total content of dissolved salts in Sea or Ocean.
The salinity of Ocean water in the surface layer of oceans depend mainly on evaporation and precipitation.
The ocean currents contribute to the salinity variations.
Salinity, temperature and density of water are interrelated. Hence, any change in the temperature or density influences the salinity of an area.

34.What is the rate at which the wave moves through the water called?
[A] Wave Height
[B] Wave Amplitude
[C] Wave Speed
[D] Wave Period

Answer: C [Wave Speed]
Waves are formed by energy passing through water, resulting it to move in a circular motion.
Wave speed – It is the rate at which the wave moves through the water.
It is measured in knots.

35.Which among the following statements is/are correct about the Temperate Deciduous Biome?
Precipitation in this biome happens year round.
Bamboo, Sal, Shisham, Sandalwood, Khair, Kusum, Mulberry are commercially important species.
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1
[B] Only 2
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 & 2

Answer: A [Only 1]
Temperate Deciduous Forests can be found in the eastern part of the United States and Canada, most of Europe and parts of China and Japan. Temperate deciduous forests get between 30 and 60 inches of precipitation a year. Precipitation in this biome happens year round. Three main types of trees are characteristic of these forests: northern hardwood, central hardwood, and southeast pine and oak.

36.Which among the following pairs of tribal groups in the Desert Biome is/are correctly matched?
Western Sahara – Tuaregs
Arabian Desert – Bindibus
Kalahari – Bushmen
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1
[B] Only 2
[C] Only 1 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3

Answer: C [Only 1 & 3]
In the Desert Biome, Evaporation exceeds precipitation.
Major Tribal groups:
Western Sahara – Tuaregs
Arabian Desert – Bedouins
Kalahari – Bushmen
Australia – Bindibus

37.Which among the following statements is/are correct about Mid-latitude forests?
Mid-latitude forests have fewer species of trees per unit area than the topical ones.
Pure stands of single species are common in these forests.
Select the correct code from the options given below:

[A] Only 1
[B] Only 2
[C] Both 1 & 2
[D] Neither 1 & 2

Answer: C [Both 1 & 2]
Mid-latitude forests have fewer species of trees per unit area than the topical ones. Pure stands of single species are common in these forests. Presence of pure stands makes these forests more suitable for commercial exploitation.

38.In what type of mining, minerals are just dug out of the rocks?
[A] Shaft mining
[B] Drilling
[C] Open Cast mining
[D] Quarrying

Answer: D [Quarrying]
Mining is the activity of obtaining minerals from the surface of the earth or from the rocks from below the surface.
Some of the minerals like building stone occur either on the surface or at very shallow depths. These minerals are just dug out of the rocks. This activity is called Quarrying.

39.Which among the following region of the world accounts for more than 50 % of the total petroleum reserves?
[A] European Region
[B] American Region
[C] Middle East
[D] South east Asia

Answer: C [Middle East ]
The richest oil bearing region in the world is the Middle East Asia accounting for more than 50 per cent of the total reserves.
The leading oil producers in this region are Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, UAE, Qatar and Kuwait.

40.Which among the following region has the highest density of rail network?
[A] Eastern Asia
[B] Western Europe
[C] South east Asia
[D] North America

Answer: B [Western Europe]
Railways are the major carriers of passenger and freight traffic in countries having a developed rail network. At the global level, the most important regions with a high density of railroad network include Western Europe, eastern parts of US, Russia, Japan, China, India and southern parts of Africa.
Western European region has the highest density of rail network.

41.Earthquakes are generally associated with :
[A] Joints
[B] Faults
[C] Folds
[D] Schistosity

Answer: B [Faults]
Earthquake is a sudden and violent movement, or fracture, within the earth followed by the series of shocks resulting from this fracture. Earthquake is more likely to be of Tectonic origin and probably because of existence of a Fault.

42.Which of the following is the newest geological era ?
[A] Permian
[B] Triassic
[C] Cretaceous
[D] Jurassic

Answer: C [Cretaceous]
The correct chronological order of the geological eras (in million years before the present) are as follows:- Cretaceous: 72.1-145; Jurassic: 152.1-201.3; Triassic: 208.5-201.3; Permian: 254.2-298.9.

43.Which one of the following rivers crosses the tropic of capricorn twice ?
[A] Vaal
[B] Limpopo
[C] Nizer
[D] Zambezi

Answer: B [Limpopo]
The Limpopo River cuts through the Tropic of Capricorn twice. It rises in Transvaal and flows through South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique to the Indian Ocean. The Limpopo is the second largest river in Africa that drains to the Indian Ocean, after the Zambezi River.

44.Which atmospheric layer is farthest from the Earth’s surface?
[A] Stratosphere
[B] Exosphere
[C] Ionosphere
[D] Mesosphere

Answer: B [Exosphere]
Extending from the top of the thermosphere to 10,000 km above the earth is the exosphere which is farthest from the Earth. This layer has very few atmospheric molecules, which can escape into space.

45.Mission of Ramsar Convention is to conserve which of the following?
[A] wetland
[B] rivers
[C] oceans
[D] deserts

Answer: A [wetland]
The Convention on Wetlands, called the Ramsar Convention, is the intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. The Convention was adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971 and came into force in 1975.

46.The Panama Canal links which two oceans?
[A] Pacific and Atlantic Ocean
[B] Atlantic and Arctic Ocean
[C] Pacific and Indian Ocean
[D] Antarctic and Atlantic Ocean

Answer: A [Pacific and Atlantic Ocean]
The Panama Canal is a 48-mile ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. The American Society of Civil Engineers has named the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world.

47.Sunda Trench is in which ocean?
[A] Indian Ocean
[B] Pacific Ocean
[C] Atlantic Ocean
[D] Gulf of Mexico

Answer: A [Indian Ocean]
The Sunda Trench, earlier known as the Java Trench, is located in the northeastern Indian Ocean, with a length of 2,600 kilometres. It is the deepest point in the Indian Ocean.

48.Which of the following is NOT correctly matched?
[A] Khamsin – Egypt
[B] Chinook – China
[C] Sirocco – Italy
[D] Ghibli – Libya

Answer: B [Chinook – China]
Chinook winds are föhn winds in the interior West of North America, where the Canadian Prairies and Great Plains meet various mountain ranges. Etymologically meaning ‘ice-eater’, it is a warming wind from the ocean into the interior regions of the Pacific Northwest of the USA.

49.Which is the longest river in Sri Lanka?
[A] Kelani
[B] Maha
[C] Mahaweli
[D] Kalu

Answer: C [Mahaweli]
The Mahaweli River is a 335 km long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka. It has a drainage basin of 10,448 km2 covering almost one-fifth of the total area of the island.

50.The Channel Tunnel is an undersea tunnel connecting which two countries?
[A] France and Germany
[B] France and England
[C] France and Spain
[D] Spain and Morocco

Answer: B [France and England]
The Channel Tunnel, which connects southern England with northern France. The world’s longest undersea tunnel took some 200 years to build, with various changes and pauses along the way.

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