India Sociology handwritten notes pdf for IAS/IFS

India Sociology handwritten notes pdf for IAS/IFS

India Sociology handwritten notes pdf for IAS/IFS

Hello Aspirants,

Sociology Definition:

Sociology is the scientific study of society, social behavior, and the interaction between individuals and groups within a given society.
Early Sociological Thinkers in India:

G.S. Ghurye, D.P. Mukerji, and M.N. Srinivas were some of the early Indian sociologists who made significant contributions to the field.
Caste System:

The caste system has been a fundamental aspect of Indian society for centuries. It divides people into hierarchical groups based on birth, occupation, and social status.
Modern sociologists study the caste system’s impact on social stratification, inequality, and social mobility in contemporary India.
Family and Kinship:

The family is an essential institution in Indian society, and extended families often play a significant role in people’s lives.
Sociologists examine the changing dynamics of family structures and the impact of urbanization on traditional family systems.
Religion and Society:

India is a diverse country with multiple religions coexisting. Sociology explores the influence of religion on cultural practices, social norms, and intergroup relations.
Gender and Women’s Issues:

Gender roles and women’s status have been critical topics of study in Indian sociology. Researchers analyze gender-based inequalities and women’s empowerment initiatives.
Education and Social Change:

Sociology looks into the role of education in societal development, social mobility, and the transmission of cultural values.
Urbanization and Urban Sociology:

The process of urbanization and its impact on migration, urban poverty, and city planning are subjects of interest in Indian sociology.
Social Movements:

India has witnessed various social movements addressing issues such as environmental concerns, women’s rights, and marginalized communities’ rights.
Sociologists study the causes, strategies, and outcomes of these movements.
Globalization and Cultural Change:

The process of globalization has significantly influenced Indian society, culture, and economy. Sociologists analyze its effects on traditional practices and cultural identity.
Dalit Studies:

Dalit studies focus on the experiences and struggles of Dalits (formerly known as untouchables) and their efforts to fight against discrimination and achieve social equality.
Tribal Studies:

Tribal studies explore the lives, cultures, and challenges faced by India’s indigenous tribal communities.
Modernization and Social Transformation:

Sociology examines the impact of modernization and technological advancements on various aspects of Indian society.
Poverty and Social Welfare:

The study of poverty, social welfare programs, and their effectiveness in addressing social issues is an essential part of Indian sociology.
Indian sociology is a diverse and dynamic field that addresses various social issues and societal changes in the context of a rapidly evolving nation. These notes provide an overview of some key areas studied in Indian sociology, but the field is vast, and there are ongoing research and debates in each of these areas.

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India Sociology Objective Type Questions and Answers

1. The term ‘sociology’ was coined by

(a) Saint Simon

(b) Herbert Spencer

(c) Auguste Comte

(d) Durkheim

Ans. (c)

2. In which year the term ‘Sociology’ was coined?

(a) 1798

(b) 1815

(c) 1839

(d) 1857

Ans. (c)

3. French Revolution took place in the year

(a) 1789

(b) 1776

(c) 1798

(d) 1898

Ans. (a)

4. Sociology emerged in

(a) America

(b) Europe

(c) Asia

(d) Africa

Ans. (b)

5. The word ‘Sociology’ is made up of two words. These are-

(a) Societies and Logy

(b) Societia and Logistia

(c) Socious and Logos

(d) Socia & Logos

Ans. (c)

6. Society emerges out of

(a) community’s existence

(b) men’s existence

(c) problem’s existence

(d) relationship

Ans. (b)

7. Society symbolises the network of

(a) human relationships

(b) social relationships

(c) orientations

(d) inter-connections

Ans. (b)

8. ‘Society is the web of social relationships’ whose definition is this?

(a) Maclver

(b) H. Maine

(c) Pluto

(d) Aristotle

Ans. (a)

9. There are two types of definition of society. These are-

(a) Structural and interactional

(b) Functional and structural

(c) Evolutionary and diffusive

(d) Structural and evolutionary

Ans. (b)

10. Society is

(a) Natural

(b) Deliberate

(c) Practical

(d) Functional

Ans. (b)

11. Marriage is a/an

(a) important and universal social institution of society

(b) important basis for group formation

(c) helpful in strengthening the caste system

(d) helpful in calming down the anger of two conflicting groups.

Ans. (a)

12. In the Industrialised western societies, the chief aim of marriage is not only procreation but

(a) companionship

(b) emotional and psychological support and companionship

(c) emotional and psychological support

(d) divorce

Ans. (b)

13. Marriage is considered to be necessary because

(a) This is the only way to acquire paternal property

(b) This is the only way of sexual gratification

(c) This provides societal sanction

(d) It is regularised and provides socially sanctioned sex gratification

Ans. (d)

14. In his book ‘People of India’ who said ‘that probably there has existed in man a tendency to vary. This desire must have driven men to seek marital alliance with strangers, unfamiliar and unknown to him’.

(a) Guha

(b) Ghureye

(c) Risley

(d) Westermarck

Ans. (c)

15. Risley have given this statement put in question No. 4 to support his views on _______, regarding marriage.

(a) Exogamy

(b) Acculturation

(c) Preference and prohibition

(d) Cousin marriage

Ans. (d)

16. Who among the following was on the opinion that” A gift is a social substitute for money among moneyless cultures.”?

(a) Ogburn and Nimkoff

(b) Mauss

(c) Frazer

(d) Polyan

Ans. (a)

17. The importance of the social division of labour as a criterion of social development has been insisted by

(a) Karl Marx

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) F. Engels

(d) Herbert Hyman

Ans. (b)

18. Whose statement is this?

“Jajmani relationships is the means by which the rich and powerful exploit the poor and coerce the workers into sustaining the power of those who have the upper hand and the higher rank.”

(a) M.N. Srinivas

(b) Mandelbaum

(c) Beidelman

(d) H. Maine

Ans. (c)

19. Kula exchange is associated with

(a) Tikopians

(b) Trobriand Islanders

(c) Krowe tribes

(d) Azande tribes

Ans. (b)

20. The basis of slave system is always?

(a) Political

(b) Economic

(c) Custom

(d) Social need

Ans. (b)

21. Which of the following factors does not contribute to the growth of traditional societies?

(a) Community and associational life is kept loose without any prescribed basis of social existence

(b) Perpetuation of tribal and caste affiliation

(c) Perpetuation of kinship and clanship

(d) Continuation of agriculture as the dominant activity.

Ans. (a)

22. Which of the following statements is correct?

(a) The percentage of the world’s population that live in cities is indeed very large

(b) Most of the world has been urban most of the time.

(c) Most of the world has been rural most of the time.

(d) India is a highly urban country

Ans. (c)

23. A characteristic feature of a rural community is

(a) Formal relationship

(b) Rational will

(c) Community sentiment

(d) A vast number of association

Ans. (a)

24. Who among the following was the first to distinguish between the state and the government?

(a) Locke

(b) R. Dahl

(c) Marx

(d) Max Weber

Ans. (a)

25. ‘The state originates and continues to exist for the sake of the best life’. Whose opinion is this?

(a) Aristotle

(b) C.W. Mills

(c) R. Dahl

(d) W. Pareto

Ans. (a)

26. Who among the following is associated with authority?

(a) Hobbes

(b) Rousseau

(c) M. Weber

(d) Locke

Ans. (c)

27. The three-tier system of Panchayati Raj was recommended by

(a) Kaka Kalekar Committee

(b) Simon Commission

(c) Balwant Rai Mehta Committee

(d) Jai Prakash Narain Committee

Ans. (c)

28. Functional theory of stratification propounded by

(a) Davis and Parsons

(b) Davis and Moore

(c) Parsons and Ross

(d) Goode and Hatt

Ans. (b)

29. Who among the following has emphasized upon the functional aspects of stratification?

(a) Durkheim, Weber, Parsons

(b) Marx, Weber, Davis

(c) Davis, Moore, Parsons

(d) Lenski, C.W. Mills, Parsons

Ans. (c)

30. The society has passed through the three stages of its development-theological, metaphysical and the positive. This view was held by

(a) Max Weber

(b) H. Spencer

(c) F. Tonnies

(d) A. Comte

Ans. (d)

31. A social movement depends on

1. A goal

2. An Organisation

3. A programme

4. A set of value


(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4

(b) 1 and 4

(c) 1, 3 and 4

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans. (a)

32. Whose definition is this?

‘Tribe is an indigenous unit speaking a common language, claiming a common descent, living in a particular geographical area, backward in technology, pre-literate, loyally observing social and political customs based on kinship.’

(a) A conference at Shillong in 1962

(b) Earth Summit at Rio in 1992

(c) Radcliffe Brown

(d) Indigenous People Conference, Sav Paulo 1937

Ans. (a)

33. Practice of welcoming guests, by spitting on their body is practiced by

(a) Azande

(b) Onges

(c) Sherdukpens

(d) Masai

Ans. (d)

34. Demographers do not take into account

(a) Age, sex and racial composition of the population

(b) Height and weight of the population

(c) Birth and death rate

(d) Density of population

Ans. (b)

35. What is meant by sex-ratio?

(a)The relation between male and female

(b) The ratio between the number of adult male and adult females in a population

(c)The ratio between number of female and number of male in a population

(d) The number of females per 1000 males in a population

Ans. (d)

36. The scheduled castes in India provide an example of a

(a) Formal group

(b) Reference group

(c) Social category

(d) Secondary group

Ans. (c)

37. Who gave the name ‘Harijans’ to the untouchables?

(a) Indian constitution

(b) B.R. Ambdedkar

(c) M.K. Gandhi

(d) G.S. Ghurye

Ans. (c)

38. According to whom the ‘self’ develops in a social context and is nurtured by primary groups?

(a) Charles H. Cooley

(b) Ruth Benedict

(c) Mead

(d) Freud

Ans. (a)

39. Who viewed corporate group in relation to authority and termed it as Verband?

(a) Hobsbawm

(b) Sir Henry Maine

(c) Weber

(d) None

Ans. (c)

40. The value which cannot be determined graphically is:

(a) Median

(b) Mean

(c) Frequency table

(d) None of the above

Ans. (a)

41. The most frequent item of the series around which other items are densely populated is known as:

(a) geometric mean

(b) arithmetic mean

(c) harmonic mean

(d) mode

Ans. (d)

42. What is the theoretical framework that fo­cuses on the level of economic development as the determinant of birth and death rates, referred to as?

(A) Malthusian Theory of population

(B) Optimum Theory of population

(C) Demographic Transition Theory

(D) Theory of social capillarity

Ans. (B)

43. Which of the following determine India’s fertility rate?

1. Religious importance of the male child.

2. Social security value of children

3. Economic value of children

4. Intrinsic value of children

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(A) 1 and 2 only

(B) 3 and 4 only

(C) 1, 2 and 3 only

(D) 2, 3 and 4 only

Ans. (C)

44. Which one of the following is the first stage of the evolution of an institution?

(A) Tradition

(B) Ideology

(C) Collective Experience

(D) Mores

Ans. (B)

45. Identify the particular element that domi­nates in the material culture:

(A) Religion and Morality

(B) Science and Technology

(C) Custom and Tradition

(D) Folkways

Ans. (D)

46. Which among the following is the indicator of open stratification system?

(A) Ethnicity

(B) Caste

(C) Class

(D) Religion

Ans. (C)

47. Who among the following authors initially used the term ‘social physics’ for Sociology?

(A) Spencer

(B) Comte

(C) Tonnies

(D) Weber

Ans. (B)

48. An author thought of ‘society to be consist­ing in the consciousness of kind’. Identify from among the following:

(A) Cooley

(B) Ward

(C) Simmel

(D) Giddings

Ans. (D)

49. Which of the following best describes sociology as a subject?

(a) The study of individual behavior

(b) The study of cultures

(c) The study of society and social interaction

(d) The study of economics

Ans. (c)

50. C. Wright Mills once said that sociologists need to develop a sociological __________ to study how society affects individuals.

(a) culture

(b) imagination

(c) method

(d) tool

Ans. (b)

51. A sociologist defines society as a group of people who reside in a defined area, share a culture, and who:

(a) interact

(b) work in the same industry

(c) speak different languages

(d) practice a recognized religion

Ans. (a)

52. Seeing patterns means that a sociologist needs to be able to:

(a) compare the behavior of individuals from different societies

(b) compare one society to another

(c) identify similarities in how social groups respond to social pressure

(d) compare individuals to groups

Ans. (c)

53. Which of the following was a topic of study in early sociology?

(a) Astrology

(b) Economics

(c) Physics

(d) History

Ans. (b)

54. Sociology has been derived from the Latin word ‘Societus’ and ‘logos’, which means:

(a) Friend or companion and science

(b) Society and laws

(c) Sociability and science

(d) Society and science

Ans. (d)

55. It was as the founder of “Positive” movement that- achieved recognition as a philosopher, and although modem sociologists do not consider his theories as anything other than a series of interesting speculations, they recognize that he was responsible for demonstrating the need for an objective systematic study of society.

(a) Auguste Comte

(b) Saint Simon

(c) Herbert Spencer

(d) Emile Durkheim

Ans. (a)

56. Modem sociological thought and theory, as distinct from the purely contemplative or philosophical analysis of society, emerged in the:

(a) Late 17th century

(b) Late 19th century

(c) Late 18th century and early 19th century

(d) Early 18th century

Ans. (c)

57. Relationship central to sociology are those which involve:

(a) Friendliness

(b) Conflict

(c) Mutual recognition and the sense of something shared in common

(d) Kinship ties

Ans. (c)

58. Underlying seemingly unconnected, contradictory, chaotic happenings, there are patterns and regularities. It is the focus of a sociologist to:

(a) Find and study them

(b) Try and change them

(c) Make them perfectly regular and patterned

(d) Study the best patterns

Ans. (a)

59. One important advantage of socialisation is that it takes one:

(a) Out of group life

(b) Leave one’s isolation

(c) Member of political system

(d) Realise the importance of wealth

Ans. (b)

60. ‘Group Mind’ was written by:

(a) Bonsanquest

(b) Mac Dougall

(c) Spencer

(d) Hegel

Ans. (b)

61. Differences can be those of:

(a) Capacity

(b) Non-capacity

(c) Non Interests

(d) Lack of aptitude

Ans. (a)

62. In society differences are always:

(a) Inborn

(b) Adopted

(c) Environmental

(d) Both adopted and natural

Ans. (d)

63. Who of the following had defined society as union in itself?

(a) Giddings

(b) A.W. Green

(c) R.M. Maclver

(d) John F. Cuber

Ans. (a)

64. Force theory about origin of society is not accepted because it is believed that:

(a) It is not historically correct

(b) State was given by God

(c) It creates feat in the minds of the people

(d) It is by now clear that state is expansion of families

Ans. (a)

65. According to_________, self and society are not identical.

(a) Cooley

(b) Mead

(c) Freud

(d) Marx

Ans. (c)

66. Socialism is a _____ not a process.

(a) Theory

(b) Virtue

(c) biological specialization

(d) state of nature

Ans. (a)

67. In society differences grow due to:

(a) Socialisation

(b) Non-specialisation

(c) Non-socialisation

(d) Isolation

Ans. (a)

68. Force theory about origin of society makes us believes that:

(a) Society was given by God

(b) Force brought society into existence

(c) Force has nothing to do with the emergence of society

(d) Force has no relevance with the coming of society

Ans. (b)

69. In India, the institution of family has a trend towards:

(a) Joint family

(b) Single family

(c) Patriarchal family

(d) Matriarchal family

Ans. (b)

70. These days in India the institution of marriage is weakening because:

(a) Our religious leaders are becoming rigid

(b) women are becoming economically sell-sufficient

(c) less number of people are liking to marry

(d) people prefer small size family

Ans. (b)

71. Who among the following does not fall under the category of community?

(a) Keralites in Delhi

(b) Trade union movement

(c) The people of U.S. origin

(d) None of the above

Ans. (a)

72. Which one of the following is not correct about institutional structure?

(a) There is rule to codify its working

(b) There are no codified rules of its working

(c) There are symbols which synthesize relationship

(d) It is bound with the others

Ans. (b)

73. Industry is institutional structure of an institution which by nature is:

(a) Political

(b) Cultural

(c) Economic

(d) Social

Ans. (c)

74. Pick up one which is not true of an institution:

(a) It is least concerned with customs and mores

(b) Customs and mores are its distinguishing feature

(c) It meets primary needs of the people

(d) It is very stable

Ans. (a)

75. Which of the following is not the characteristic of an institution?

(a) It must follow some well-established rules

(b) Its strength is based on obedience to rules

(c) These grow with the society

(d) These have no definite objectives

Ans. (d)

76. Who of the following has defined institution by saying that, “Institution is definite organisation pursuing some specific interest in a specific way”?

(a) R.M. Maclver

(b) Ogbum

(c) Ginsberg

(d) E.A. Ross

Ans. (a)

77. Who of the following has said that “A social institution is a functional configuration of culture pattern”?

(a) Kimball Young

(b) Maclver

(c) Ginsberg

(d) Gillin and Gillin

Ans. (d)

78. “Social institutions are sets of organised human relationships established by common will” was said by:

(a) C.H. Colley

(b) E.A. Ross

(c) Kingsley Davis

(d) Sheriff and Sheriff

Ans. (b)

79. Which among the following constitutes a group?

(a) Vegetables sellers following one another into a lane.

(b) Members of a circus company engaged in performance.

(c) Children running out of the school after it is closed for the day.

(d) Partnership that has failed.

Ans. (b)

80. Indicate which of the following a group?

(a) Some members of Bar Association discussing matters concerning their Association.

(b) Some surgeons discussing an important subject of surgery.

(c) An executive body of a trade union.

(d) A horse-man, a cyclist, and a pedestrian going along the road.

Ans. (d)

81. Member of a small trade union is:

(a) A social group

(b) An associational group

(c) A statistical group

(d) A primary group

Ans. (b)

82. Which of the following is not a characteristic of social group?

(a) Its members are conscious of shared membership.

(b) Its members accept certain rights and obligations.

(c) Its members are a casual collection of people

(d) Its members have a distinctive set of interpersonal relations.

Ans. (c)

83. George Simmel’s classification of group as monad, dyad, triad etc. is based on:

(a) physical proximity

(b) nature of membership

(c) social relations

(d) size

Ans. (d)

84. Who among the following introduced the concept of ‘imaginary reference group’?

(a) New Comb

(b) Merton

(c) Klinberg

(d) Hyman

Ans. (c)

85. Who among the following have applied reference group theory in understanding sanskritization process in India’?

(a) Damle and Lynch

(b) O. Lewis and Majumdar

(c) Marriott and Singer

(d) Srinivas and Beteille

Ans. (d)

86. Mark out the primary group among the following:

(a) Members of a trade union

(b) Family

(c) Students of history

(d) The social workers

Ans. (b)

87. Which among the following are reference groups?

(a) College going students

(b) Nuclear scientists

(c) Marine engineers

(d) All

Ans. (d)

88. Which among the following is not a secondary group?

(a) Political party

(b) A city

(c) Labour union

(d) Students in a class room

Ans. (d)

89. Which among the following do not constitute the reference group?

(a) Cambridge scholars

(b) Nov Ratans in the Court of Vikramaditya

(c) Urchins on the road side

(d) Members of the United Nations

Ans. (c)

90. Which among the following is secondary group’?

(a) Nurses attending upon patient

(b) Production efficiency council in a factory

(c) A picnic group

(d) Cooperative Society

Ans. (d)

91. According to Tonnies, neighbourhood is types of_____________.

(a) Community

(b) Gesellschaft

(c) Social group

(d) Primary group

Ans. (a)

92. Find out the incorrect match-

(a) Horizontal group – craft union

(b) Spatial groups – corporation

(c) Secondary group – corporation

(d) Primary group – political party

Ans. (d)

93. Striving for admission is a ___________ behaviour.

(a) reference group

(b) primary group

(c) in-group

(d) secondary group

Ans. (a)

94. Which among the following is institutionalized and involves the right to take certain actions including decisions to issue commands?

(a) confidence

(b) strength

(c) authority

(d) force

Ans. (c)

95. According to Weber, the three types of leadership are:

(a) rational, feudal and capitalistic

(b) feudal, traditional and charismatic

(c) legal, traditional and charismatic

(d) none of the above

Ans. (c)

96. Social structure is a/an-

(a) structural coherence

(b) integration of ultimate values

(c) ritualistic expression

(d) functional arrangement

Ans. (d)

97. According to Parsons, society is a system having four basic functional prior conditions, they are-

(a) adaptation, goal-orientation, integration and pattern maintenance

(b) education, socialization, social control and religion

(c) economic institutions, political institutions ideology and kinship

(d) none of the above

Ans. (a)

98. When universalism is combined with achievement values, the result is a social structure of-

(a) universalistic-achievement pattern

(b) particularistic-ascription pattern

(c) universalistic-ascription pattern

(d) particularistic-achievement pattern

Ans. (a)

99. According to Weber the groups which are specifically concerned with influencing policies and making decisions in the interests of their membership are called_____________.

(a) Parties

(b) Communities

(c) Political Parties

(d) Relative Classes

Ans. (a)

100. According to H.M. Johnson, which one stands important for integration and pattern maintenance?

(a) leadership

(b) morality

(c) marriage

(d) kinship

Ans. (b)

101. According to Weber, which are stems from an individual’s emotional stage at a particular time?

(a) Affective action

(b) Reflective action

(c) Spring action

(d) Rational action

Ans. (a)

102. With whose name will you associate the ‘Voluntaristic theory of Action’?

(a) Parsons

(b) Weber

(c) Tonnies

(d) Durkheim

Ans. (a)

103. Sociology is the interpretive understanding of social action. This definition was brought by-

(a) Max Weber

(b) Karl Marx

(c) C. Levi Strauss

(d) Henry Maine

Ans. (a)

104. Norms are:

(a) the conducts which incorporate value-judgments

(b) the standardized generalisations

(c) the conducts which are the guidelines of the expected behaviour

(d) not pattern setting limits or the behaviour of an individual

Ans. (d)

105. Which of the following statements gives correct explanation of norms:

(a) norms are those standards of group behaviour which the members must follow

(b) norms are those standards which are obeyed to bring diffusion among the individuals

(c) norms are certain rules which are adopted to keep the individuals away from any kind of interaction

(d) norms act against the modes of behaviour of the individuals

Ans. (a)

106. Norm is:

(a) actual behaviour

(b) a culturally shared definition of desirable behaviour

(c) behaviour desired by majority of the individuals

(d) standard of behaviour

Ans. (c)

107. Social norms refer to:

(a) all types of behaviour

(b) the most frequently observed behaviour in a society

(c) right type of behaviour

(d) those standards or rules which specify appropriate and inappropriate behaviour

Ans. (b)

108. Which among the following has influenced man’s faith and belief most?

(a) the habitats

(d) levels of culture achieved

(c) the expanding experience

(d) the in-born feeling

Ans. (d)

109. Institutional belief system:

(a) cannot at all be changed

(b) can be changed easily

(c) can be changed rarely

(d) can be changed only when few powerful in the society like that

Ans. (c)

110. Institutional belief system is one which is:

(a) adopted by only one institution

(b) adopted by few institution

(c) adopted by a particular Society

(d) discarded by all institution

Ans. (a)

111. Belief system in every religious system:

(a) has some symbolic expressions

(b) has nothing to do with symbols

(c) adopts symbols when necessary

(d) discards symbols at will

Ans. (c)

112. Which one of the following cannot be the cause of frustration in the belief system?

(a) untimely death of a relation

(b) heavy loss of property

(c) failure in meeting a group of friends

(d) more reward for less work

Ans. (d)

113. In religious belief system which one of the following is not true about Muslim system:

(a) it believes in one supreme God

(b) it believes in the theory of held and heaven

(c) it believes in truth and falsehood

(d) it believes in transmigration of soul

Ans. (c)

114. _____ is spontaneous, _____ is artificial.

(a) Fashion, culture

(b) Mores, custom

(c) Custom, fashion

(d) Culture, habit

Ans. (c)

115. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of deviant behaviour?

(a) It disturbs social equilibrium

(b) It contravenes social norms

(c) It is a departure from usual mode of behaviour

(d) It is a departure from newly developed set of behaviour

Ans. (d)

116. Public opinion as a means of social control is-

(a) A weak sanction

(b) An uncertain sanction, since no one can be sure of its unified stand

(c) Useless since nobody is ready to follow it

(d) Has no relation with social control

Ans. (b)

117. It is believed that conformity with the customs is-

(a) An automatic process

(b) An indifferently imposed process

(c) An artificial process in the sense that people follow customs to showoff

(d) With some conceivable amount of deviation.

Ans. (a)

118. Customs are those sanctions-

(a) Which are relegated by a single authority

(b) Which are regulated by the eldest person in the group

(c) Which are simply accepted by the members of the society

(d) Which are regulated by law

Ans. (c)

119. Which of the following cannot be called as the deviant individuals?

(a) Delinquent

(b) Saint

(c) Miser

(d) Hippie

Ans. (c)

120. Which of the following statements is correct?

(a) Deviance is in contradiction to social norms

(b) Deviance is the negation of the social behaviour and decency

(c) Deviance means the performance of activities which are not approved by the society

(d) All of the above

Ans. (d)

121. Deviant behaviour-

(a) Brings the disintegrating forces in equilibrium

(b) Disturbs the equilibrium in the social life of the people

(c) Acts in contradiction to deviance

(d) Means the behaviour which is shown by diligent individuals

Ans. (b)

122. “The tendency on the part of one or more of the component factors to behave in such a way as to disturb the equilibrium of interactive process”, is the definition given by-

(a) W.G. Sumner

(b) Emile Durkheim

(c) R.K. Merton

(d) Talcott Parsons

Ans. (d)

123. “A motivated tendency of an actor to behave in contravention of one or more institutionalised normative patterns” is a definition of-

(a) Deviant Behaviour

(b) Customary obedience

(c) Refusal-tendency

(d) None of the above

Ans. (a)

124. Freud’s ‘Id’ can best be translated as____________.

(a) Reason

(b) Hostility

(c) Desire

(d) Social conscience

Ans. (c)

125. According to Cooley, the concept of____________ refers to an individual perception of self as determined by the way one imagines one appears to others or as others perceive us______.

(a) Significant others

(b) Generalised others

(c) Looking-glass self

(d) None of the above

Ans. (c)

126. Which among the following is true of socialization?

(a) It socializes the individuals

(b) It makes society above individual

(c) It brings individuals into the social

(d) All the above

Ans. (d)

127. Whose name is associated with the process of Socialization?

(a) C.H. Cooley

(b) G.H. Mead

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) All the above

Ans. (d)

128. Which is true of socialization?

(a) It highlights values & manners within individuals.

(b) Socialisation includes both learning of new things and unlearning of maladaptive behaviours

(c) Socialization is both intentional and unintentional

(d) All the above

Ans. (d)

129. Who among the following has brought the concept of ID, Ego and Superego?

(a) Sigmund Freud

(b) G.H. Mead

(c) C.H. Cooley

(d) Maclver

Ans. (a)

130. The concept of T and ‘Me’ is attributed the name of-

(a) C.H. Cooley

(b) G.H. Mead

(c) Sigmund Freud

(d) Maclver

Ans. (b)

131. Who has tabled the process of socialization through the process of playing at a role?

(a) O.H. Mead

(b) C.H. Cooley

(c) S. Freud

(d) T. Mazumdar

Ans. (a)

132. Whose name is associated with concept of significant others?

(a) C.H. Cooley

(b) G.H. Mead

(c) S. Freud

(d) Maclver

Ans. (b)

133. Whose name associated with the concept of generalized other?

(a) G.H. Mead

(b) C.H. Cooley

(c) Maclver

(d) S. Freud

Ans. (b)

134. Which among the following involves secondary cooperation?

(a) Trade Union

(b) Countries which joined to defeat Hitler in the Second World War

(c) The referee, players and spectators on the play ground

(d) All the above

Ans. (d)

135. Which among the following does not involve secondary cooperation?

(a) Religious organization

(b) Industry

(c) Trade Union

(d) Teacher-student relations

Ans. (d)

136. Which among the following involves secondary cooperation?

(a) Family

(b) Cabinet

(c) The Party Executive

(d) Trade Union

Ans. (d)

137. Which among the following is based on direct cooperation?

(a) Family

(b) Government

(c) Parliament

(d) General Assembly

Ans. (a)

138. In which of the following the principle of cooperation is not involved?

(a) Cooperative society

(b) United Nations

(c) Family Planning

(d) A intending to organise opposition against the cricket club

Ans. (d)

139. Which one of the following is NOT the advantage of Polygamy?

(a) in it, it is possible to have healthy children

(b) in it the chances of sex corruption are reduced

(c) in it the fragmentation of property is saved

(d) in it there is harmony in the family

Ans. (d)

140. In adelphic polyandry form of marriage the children are treated as the offspring of the-

(a) youngest brother

(b) eldest brother

(c) maternal uncle

(d) none of the above

Ans. (b)

141. According to Morgan, which of the following is the correct order of evolution of family?

(a) Monogamian family, consanguine family, punaluan family, syndasmian family and patriarchal family

(b) Punaluan family, syndyasmian family, consanguineal family, patriarchal family and monogamian family

(c) Consanguine family, punaluan family, syndayasmian family, patriarchal family and monogamian family

(d) None of the above

Ans. (c)

142. The marriage relations in the matriarchal type of family are-

(a) transient in nature

(b) permanent in nature

(c) of double coincidence in nature

(d) similar to that of the patriarchal society

Ans. (b)

143. Primitive societies are characterised more by___________ terms in kinship.

(a) classificatory

(b) ambiguous

(c) descriptive

(d) deceptive

Ans. (a)

144. The descendants of common male ancestor are called__________.

(a) agnates

(b) cognates

(c) lineal kins

(d) collateral kins

Ans. (a)

145. “One is not born but rather becomes a woman”. Who said this?

(a) John Stuart Mill

(b) Betty Friedan

(c) Simone de Beauvoir

(d) Shulamith Firestone

Ans. (c)

146. One of the major causes of high maternal mortality rate in India is:

(a) Anaemia among Women

(b) Carelessness of doctors

(c) Illiteracy

(d) Adolescent pregnancies

Ans. (a)

147. Marx believed that western society had developed through the following main epochs. They are –

(a) primitive communism, ancient society, feudal society and capitalist society

(b) savagery, feudalism and capitalism

(c) slavery, barbarism and feudalism

(d) feudalism, capitalism and’ socialism

Ans. (a)

148. Who first introduced the concept of alienation into sociological theory?

(a) Hegel

(b) August Comte

(c) Marx

(d) Herbert Spencer

Ans. (c)

149. In which of the following is there a reciprocal relationship and interaction among men and groups within a cultural framework?

(a) Society

(b) Community

(c) Social group

(d) None of the above

Ans. (a)

150. Weber has identified various types of action which are distinguished by the meanings on which they are based. They are-

(a) affective, emotional, and rational action

(b) emotional, traditional and rational action

(c) traditional, legal and charismatic action

(d) none of the above

Ans. (b)

151. Division of labour into occupations is called ____________.

(a) social division of labour

(b) occupational division of labour

(c) technical division of labour

(d) territorial division of labour

Ans. (a)

152. Division of labour within a particular enterprise is called-

(a) social division of labour

(b) technical division of labour

(c) occupation division of labour

(d) territorial division of labour

Ans. (b)

153. In large cities, the neighbourhood is largely a group ______ of characterised chiefly by the fact that the members reside within a geographical area.

(a) loose families

(b) neigh-dwellers

(c) close relatives

(d) slum dwellers

Ans. (a)

154. A scientific distinction between the urban and the rural community can be made on the basis of-

(a) density of population

(b) area covered

(c) occupation followed by the people

(d) none of the above

Ans. (d)

155. Dependency groups are____________

(a) 14 years and younger and 65 years and above

(b) 16 years and below and 60 years and above

(c) 18 years and younger and 60 years

(d) None of the above

Ans. a

156. Natural increase of population means___________

(a) the net difference between births and deaths

(b) population explosion

(c) the difference between migration and immigration

(d) the difference between birth rate and mortality rate

Ans. a

157. Rights which are given to the citizens by the constitution but which cannot be touched by the state are known as

(a) legal rights

(b) moral rights

(c) political rights

(d) fundamental rights

Ans. d

158. Whereas for Marx history ultimately leads to, and ends with the communist Utopia for Pareto history is a never ending

(a) process

(b) circulation of elites

(c) process of producing lion elites

(d) process of producing fox elites

Ans. b

159. Which Article of the constitution deals with specifying a particular tribe as a scheduled tribe?

(a) Art. 342

(b) Art. 343

(c) Art. 344

(d) Art. 345

Ans. a

160. Article________ provides for a commissioner for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes

(a) 338

(b) 339

(c) 340

(d) 342

Ans. a

161. A social movement depends on:

A. A goal B. A organisation

C. A programmeD. A set of values


(a) A and B

(b) A and C

(c) A and D

(d) A, B, C and D

Ans. (d)

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