AAI Junior Executive and Assistant- English Grammar notes

AAI Junior Executive and Assistant- English Grammar notes

AAI Junior Executive and Assistant- English Grammar notes

Hello Aspirants,

Parts of Speech:

Noun: Names a person, place, thing, or idea (e.g., cat, city, love).
Pronoun: Replaces a noun (e.g., he, she, they).
Verb: Expresses action or state of being (e.g., run, sleep, is).
Adjective: Modifies a noun (e.g., beautiful, tall, delicious).
Adverb: Modifies a verb, adjective, or another adverb (e.g., quickly, very, too).
Preposition: Shows a relationship between nouns/pronouns and other words (e.g., on, under, with).
Conjunction: Connects words, phrases, or clauses (e.g., and, but, or).
Interjection: Expresses strong emotion (e.g., wow, oh, alas).
Sentence Types:

Declarative: Makes a statement (e.g., The sun is shining).
Interrogative: Asks a question (e.g., Are you coming?).
Imperative: Gives a command or request (e.g., Please pass the salt).
Exclamatory: Shows strong emotion (e.g., What a beautiful day!).
Verb Tenses:

Present: Describes current actions or general truths (e.g., I eat breakfast every day).
Past: Refers to actions that have already happened (e.g., She played soccer yesterday).
Future: Indicates actions that will occur later (e.g., They will arrive tomorrow).
Present Continuous: Describes actions in progress now (e.g., I am reading a book).
Past Continuous: Describes actions that were ongoing in the past (e.g., She was studying all night).
Future Continuous: Describes actions that will be ongoing in the future (e.g., They will be working late).
Subject-Verb Agreement:

A singular subject takes a singular verb (e.g., He sings beautifully).
A plural subject takes a plural verb (e.g., They play soccer every weekend).
Watch out for tricky subjects, like collective nouns (e.g., The team is winning) and indefinite pronouns (e.g., Everyone is happy).

Definite Article (the): Used before specific nouns (e.g., the book, the car).
Indefinite Articles (a/an): Used before nonspecific nouns (e.g., a dog, an apple).
Passive Voice:

Formed by using a form of “to be” + past participle (e.g., The letter was sent by him).
Active voice is usually preferred, but passive is used to shift focus or emphasize the receiver of the action.
Gerunds and Infinitives:

Gerunds end in “-ing” and function as nouns (e.g., I love swimming).
Infinitives are the base form of the verb (e.g., to read) and can act as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
Conditional Sentences:

Zero Conditional: Expresses general truths (e.g., If it rains, the streets get wet).
First Conditional: Expresses possible future actions (e.g., If it rains, we will stay indoors).
Second Conditional: Expresses hypothetical or unlikely situations (e.g., If I won the lottery, I would travel the world).
Third Conditional: Refers to unreal past situations (e.g., If she had studied, she would have passed the exam).

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The main tenses in English

Tense is a grammatical category that refers to the time frame in which a verb is used to describe an action or event. It is used to indicate the time of occurrence of an action or event in relation to the present moment.

The following are the main tenses in English:

Simple Present Tense: used to describe actions or events that occur regularly or habitually in the present. Example: She walks to the park every day.

Simple Past Tense: used to describe actions or events that occurred in the past and are now finished. Example: She walked to the park yesterday.

Simple Future Tense: used to describe actions or events that will occur in the future. Example: She will walk to the park tomorrow.

Present Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that are happening now or in the present. Example: She is walking to the park.

Past Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that were in progress in the past. Example: She was walking to the park.

Future Continuous Tense: used to describe actions or events that will be in progress in the future. Example: She will be walking to the park.

Present Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that have happened at an unspecified time before now. Example: She has walked to the park.

Past Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that were completed before a specific time in the past. Example: She had walked to the park before she went to work.

Future Perfect Tense: used to describe actions or events that will be completed before a specific time in the future. Example: She will have walked to the park by the time she goes to work.

Correct use of tense is important in conveying the time frame of an action or event, and helps to make writing or speech clear and concise.


Direct and Indirect are two ways of reporting speech or writing in English.

Direct speech: Direct speech is a way of reporting what someone said by using their exact words in quotation marks. Example: She said, “I am going to the park.”

Indirect speech: Indirect speech is a way of reporting what someone said without using their exact words. The sentence structure changes and the reporting verb is usually changed to reflect the change in tense. Example: She said that she was going to the park.

In indirect speech, the tense of the original statement may also change, as well as the use of pronouns and other words in the sentence. The use of indirect speech is often preferred in more formal or professional writing, as it can be less direct and more nuanced.

It is important to understand the difference between direct and indirect speech, as they are used in different contexts and for different purposes, and incorrect use can lead to confusion or miscommunication.

Active and passive voice are two ways of constructing sentences in English.

Active voice: In an active voice sentence, the subject of the sentence performs the action. Example: The dog bit the man.

Passive voice: In a passive voice sentence, the subject of the sentence receives the action. Example: The man was bitten by the dog.

In active voice sentences, the focus is on the action and the person or object performing the action. In passive voice sentences, the focus is on the person or object receiving the action.

The use of active and passive voice can affect the tone and emphasis of a sentence, and choosing the correct voice is important in conveying the intended meaning and in writing clear and concise sentences. In general, active voice is preferred in most forms of writing, as it is more direct and straightforward. Passive voice may be used in certain contexts, such as in scientific or technical writing, where the focus is on the result or outcome rather than the person performing the action.

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Most Important English Grammar Question Answer

Directions (1 – 5): Each of the following sentences is divided into four parts. Any of the parts may contain an error. Select the part that has an error. Select option (d), if you find no error in the sentence. Ignore punctuation errors if any.

Q.1. My sisters-in-law (a)/ who live in Bangalore (b)/ have come to stay with us. (c)/ No error (d)

Answer: a)

Q.2. A woman who always (a)/ connives on the mistakes (b)/ of her children is their worst enemy. (c)/ No error (d)

Answer: b)

Q.3. As the celebration was going (a)/ we noticed Mrs. Sharma fall back (b)/ in her chair gasping for breath. (c)/ No error (d)

Answer: a)

Q.4. Transporting goods by (a)/ air is cheaper (b)/ than land. (c)/ No error (d)

Answer: c)

Q.5. She, you and I (a)/ will manage the (b)/ workflow together. (c)/ No error (d)

Answer: a)

Directions (6 – 10): Choose the option that completes the sentence most meaningfully and appropriately.

Q.6. They recognize that problems that were too big to crack in the past can now be solved precisely because of _____________, algorithms, and sensors.

a)      Amortization

b)      Digitization

c)      Initialization

d)      Localization

Answer: b)

Q.7. According to the last population ____________, globally India has the largest illiterate population.

a)      Agreement

b)      Economy

c)      Census

d)      Consensus

Answer: c)

Q.8. A transparent regulatory environment, clarity on applicability of existing tax Laws, less __________ by State, and minimum restriction or regulation are the key takeaways from the Startup launch.

a)      Interference

b)      Aid

c)      Help

d)      Fund

Answer: a)

Q.9. A Limited Liability Partnership, popularly known as LLP combines the advantages of both the Company and Partnership into a single form of organization and offers a ___________ structure.

a)      Homogeneous

b)      Concentration

c)      Separated

d)      Hybrid

Answer: d)

Q.10. The e-commerce market has grown exponentially and evolved as a leading source of the much needed foreign ___________ required by our economy.

a)      Institution

b)      Affair

c)      Investment

d)      Tourist

Answer: c)

Q.11 : The entire nation grieved over the death of the prime minister.
(a) cried
(b) wept
(c) mourned
(d) harrashed
Answer : mourned

Q.12 : He did not pay any heed to my advice.
(a) respect
(b) caution
(c) attention
(d) none of these

Q. 13 : He is of a very affable nature.
(a) pleasant
(b) humble
(c) irriting
(d) quarrelsome
Answer : pleasant

Q.14 : He is very polite to his parents and treats them with deference.
(a) respect
(b) prayer
(c) diffculty
(d) pride
Answer : respect

Q.15 : The american flag is ………………white and blue.
(a) red
(b) white
(c) black
(d) blue
Answer : red

Q.16 : He always makes so much noise when he …………………………..,
(a) chews
(b) choose
(c) chewed
(d) cheau

Q.17 : Tolstory was a ………………..russian writer
(a) grate
(b) gerat
(c) great
(d) greet
Answer : great

Q.18 : A female sheep is called a ……………..
(a) ewe
(b) you
(c) in
(d) the
Answer : ewe

Q.19 : You should act bravely …………….difficulties.
(a) in the hope of
(b) in the rear of
(c) in the face of
(d) in the teeth of
Answer : in the face of

Q.20 : He was ………………crying.
(a) on the part of
(b) on the point of
(c) on the ground of
(d) none of these
Answer : on the point of

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