UKPSC RO & ARO- Indian Geography
Today we are sharing UKPSC RO & ARO- Indian Geography. This UKPSC RO & ARO- Indian Geography for UKPSC RO & ARO EXAM.
The Himalayan mountain range, the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean all encircle the Indian subcontinent from the north, west, east, and south, respectively.
Between the Himalayas and the Deccan Plateau are the Northern Plains. These plains have excellent agricultural productivity and fertility.
Two significant mountain ranges, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, respectively, parallel the west and east coasts.
India’s enormous size and varied geography result in a range of climates. The six main climatic subtypes are temperate, subtropical, arid, semi-arid, arid, and tropical.
A significant meteorological event, the monsoon brings the nation copious rains from June through September.
The Ganges (Ganga), Yamuna, Brahmaputra, Indus, and Godavari are some of the principal rivers in India. These rivers are essential for irrigation, transportation, and agricultural support.
Resources from nature:
Minerals (coal, iron ore, bauxite), oil, natural gas, fertile land, and a wide range of flora and fauna are just a few of the abundant natural resources found in India.
India is home to a broad variety of ecosystems and species, making it one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots. It is home to numerous national parks and animal sanctuaries, including Kaziranga, Sundarbans, and Jim Corbett.
Territories and States of the Union:
There are 28 states and 8 union territories in India. Every state has a distinct topography, culture, and history of its own.
India is home to a number of large cities, including Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai (previously Bombay).
Major cities in India include Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Delhi, Kolkata (previously Calcutta), Chennai (previously Madras), and Bangalore.
India has a 7,500-kilometer-long coastline that is home to several ports and harbors.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea are just two of India’s significant island possessions.
India has a number of environmental issues, such as poor waste management, deforestation, air and water pollution, and land degradation.
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India is a diverse and vast country located in South Asia. Its geography is characterized by mountains, plateaus, plains, deserts, and coastal areas. The country’s unique geography has contributed to its rich cultural heritage and economic development.
The Himalayan mountain range dominates the northern part of India, stretching over 2,500 kilometers and including some of the highest peaks in the world, such as Mount Everest. The Himalayas are also the source of many of India’s major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus. These rivers are the lifelines of India, providing water for agriculture, drinking, and industrial use.
The northern and central parts of India are also home to several large plateau regions, including the Deccan Plateau in the south and the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the east. These areas are rich in mineral resources and have contributed significantly to India’s industrial development. The Deccan Plateau, for example, is a major center for the production of cotton and sugarcane.
The southern part of India is largely composed of the peninsular plateau, which is bordered by the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats mountain ranges. This area includes the Deccan Plateau as well as the fertile coastal plains of the east and west coasts. The coastal areas are home to several major ports and are important for fishing and trade. The Western Ghats are also home to several biodiversity hotspots, making them important for conservation efforts.
India’s vast coastline stretches over 7,500 kilometers along the Arabian Sea in the west, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Indian Ocean in the south. The coastal areas are home to several major ports, including Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata. These ports are important for international trade and have contributed significantly to India’s economic development.
India’s climate is tropical, with distinct wet and dry seasons in most parts of the country. The monsoon season, which brings heavy rainfall to many parts of India, occurs from June to September. This rainfall is essential for agriculture and provides relief from the scorching summer heat.
In conclusion, India’s geography is diverse and has contributed significantly to the country’s cultural heritage and economic development. The country’s mountains, plateaus, plains, deserts, and coastal areas provide a unique and fascinating landscape. India’s rivers, ports, and mineral resources are important for trade and industry, while its biodiversity hotspots are important for conservation efforts. The country’s tropical climate and monsoon season are essential for agriculture and provide relief from the summer heat.
The country’s mountains
Mountains are a prominent feature of the Earth’s surface, and India is home to several significant mountain ranges. The most notable of these is the Himalayan mountain range, which stretches over 2,500 kilometers from Pakistan to Bhutan, with its highest peak being Mount Everest.
The Himalayas are not just the tallest mountain range in the world but also the youngest, having been formed due to the collision of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. These mountains are an important source of water for the Indian subcontinent, as they are the origin of many major rivers, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus.
Apart from the Himalayas, India is also home to several other mountain ranges, including the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats, which run parallel to the west and east coasts of India, respectively. The Western Ghats are home to several biodiversity hotspots and have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Aravalli Range is another significant mountain range in India, located in the western part of the country. These mountains have significant historical and cultural significance, with several ancient forts and temples located on their slopes.
The Vindhya Range is another important mountain range in central India, separating the northern plains from the Deccan Plateau. The Satpura Range is another range in central India, home to several wildlife reserves and national parks.
The mountains of India have significant ecological, cultural, and economic importance. They are the source of many of India’s rivers, which are critical for agriculture and hydropower. These mountains also have important cultural and historical significance, with several ancient temples and forts located on their slopes. They are also an important source of minerals and contribute significantly to India’s tourism industry.
The country’s plateaus
India is home to several large plateau regions, which have played a significant role in the country’s economic development. The Deccan Plateau, located in south-central India, is the largest of these plateaus, covering an area of approximately 500,000 square kilometers. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats to the east and the Western Ghats to the west, and by the Satpura Range to the north.
The Deccan Plateau is a vast, volcanic plateau that has been formed by successive lava flows over millions of years. It has rich mineral resources, including iron, coal, and manganese, and is a significant center for the production of cotton, sugarcane, and other crops. The plateau is also home to several major cities, including Mumbai, Hyderabad, and Bangalore, which are important centers of industry and commerce.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is another important plateau in eastern India, covering parts of the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Orissa. This plateau is rich in mineral resources, including coal, iron, and copper, and is an important center for mining and industry.
The Malwa Plateau, located in central India, is another important plateau that covers parts of the states of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. It is an important agricultural region, with crops including wheat, soybeans, and cotton.
Plateaus have played a significant role in the development of India’s economy, providing resources for industry and agriculture. They are also home to diverse ecosystems, with unique flora and fauna. However, the development of these areas has also led to environmental challenges, including deforestation, soil erosion, and loss of biodiversity. To address these challenges, there is a need for sustainable development practices that balance economic growth with environmental protection.
Biodiversity refers to the variety of living organisms on Earth, including all the different species of plants, animals, fungi, and microorganisms, as well as the genetic diversity within each species. Biodiversity also encompasses the interactions between these different organisms and their environment, such as the ecological processes and systems that sustain life on our planet.
Biodiversity is critical for the functioning of ecosystems, which provide us with a range of ecosystem services that support human well-being, including the production of food, clean water and air, climate regulation, and cultural and recreational values. However, biodiversity is threatened by a range of human activities, such as habitat destruction, pollution, climate change, overexploitation of resources, and the introduction of non-native species. Protecting and conserving biodiversity is therefore an important global priority.
The Eastern Ghats are a mountain range that runs parallel to the eastern coast of India, from the Mahanadi Valley in Odisha in the north to the Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu in the south. The range covers a distance of around 1,750 km and has an average elevation of around 600 meters.
The Eastern Ghats are home to a rich and diverse range of flora and fauna, with many endemic species found nowhere else in the world. The region has a tropical monsoon climate, with a distinct wet and dry season, and supports a variety of ecosystems including tropical dry forests, moist deciduous forests, and grasslands.
The Eastern Ghats are also culturally significant, with many ancient temples and historic sites located in the region. The indigenous tribes living in the Eastern Ghats have their own unique cultural practices and traditions.
Despite its ecological and cultural significance, the Eastern Ghats have been subject to various threats such as deforestation, mining, and other forms of human encroachment. Efforts are being made to protect and conserve the region’s biodiversity and cultural heritage, including the establishment of protected areas and community-based conservation programs.
The Western Ghats is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of India, stretching for over 1,600 km from the Tapi River in Gujarat in the north to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu in the south. The Western Ghats are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and are one of the eight “hottest hotspots” of biological diversity in the world.
The Western Ghats are home to a large number of plant and animal species, including many endemic species found only in this region. The forests of the Western Ghats are among the most biodiverse areas in the world, with a high degree of endemism. The region is also known for its scenic beauty, with many waterfalls, lakes, and scenic spots.
The Western Ghats play an important role in regulating the climate of the region, and are the source of many major rivers in India. They also have significant cultural and religious importance, with many temples and other cultural landmarks located in the region.
The Western Ghats face various threats, including deforestation, habitat fragmentation, and degradation due to human activities such as mining, agriculture, and urbanization. Efforts are being made to conserve the biodiversity of the Western Ghats, including the establishment of protected areas, community-based conservation initiatives, and sustainable use of natural resources.
Most Indian Geography Question Answer
1. Which of the following geographical term related to the ”piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water”?
Explanation: The term that is related to the ”piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water” is an island.
2. Which of the following geographical term related to a body of land surrounded by water on three sides?
Explanation: The Peninsula is surrounded by water on three sides. They are formed through a gradual rise in water level, and surrounding land at low elevations.
3. Which of the following geographical term related to a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water?
Explanation: A Strait is a geographical term related to a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water.
4. Which of the following is a suitable definition of ‘Archipelago’?
A. A circular coral reef that encloses a shallow lagoon.
B. A chain or set of islands grouped together.
C. The plant and animal life on the earth.
D. None of the above
Explanation: An ‘archipelago’ is a group of islands closely scattered in a body of water. Sometimes also known as island group or island chain.
5. Which of the following is the largest Archipelago in the world?
A. New Guinea Archipelago
B. Canadian Archipelago
C. Malay Archipelago
D. British Isles
Explanation: Malay Archipelago is the largest Archipelago in the world.
6. Which of the following is the world’s largest peninsula?
B. South Africa
D. Both A & B
Explanation: Arabia is the world’s largest peninsula. It has 5 major it stretches over 1,250,006 square miles. It connects the mainland Asian continent and is surrounded on all sides by the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, and the Red Sea.
7. Which of the following passes cuts through the Pir Panjal range and links Manali and Leh by road?
A. Rohtang Pass
B. Mana Pass
C. Niti Pass
D. Nathula Pass
Explanation: Rohtas Pass cuts through the Pir Panjal range and links Manali and Leh by road.
8. Which of the following pass has been created by the Indus River?
A. Rohtas Pass
B. Nathula Pass
C. Baralachala Pass
D. Banihal Pass
Explanation: Banihal Pass has been created by the Indus River. It is a narrow pass between two mountains generated by a water body. It is located in the Pirpanjal ranges of Jammu and Kashmir.
9. Which passes make way to the land route between Kailash and the Manasarovar?
A. Lipulekh Pass
B. Rohtas Pass
C. Nathula Pass
D. Baralachala Pass
Explanation: Lipulekh Pass is a Himalayan mountain pass at India’s Uttarkhand-Tibetan border. It’s in the Uttarakhand region. The land route to the Manasarovar and the Kailash passes through it.
10. Which of the following passes link Srinagar to Leh?
A. Mana Pass
B. Rohtas Pass
C. Nathula Pass
D. Zoji La Pass
Explanation: Zoji La Pass link Srinagar to Leh.
11. The largest delta in India, formed by the confluence of the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers, is known as:
A. Sunderbans Delta
B. Godavari Delta
C. Mahanadi Delta
D. Krishna Delta
Explanation: The Sundarbans is a cluster of low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal, spread across India and Bangladesh, famous for its unique mangrove forests.
12. Which of the following is India’s longest coastline, stretching along the western side of the country?
A. Bay of Bengal Coast
B. Arabian Sea Coast
C. Laccadive Sea Coast
D. Andaman and Nicobar Islands Coast
Explanation: According to Britannica, it is bounded to the west by the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, to the north by Iran and Pakistan, to the east by India, and to the south by the remainder of the Indian Ocean.
1. Which of the following imaginary line almost divides India into two equal parts?
B. Tropic of Cancer
C. Tropic of Capricorn
D. Arctic Circle
2. Which of the following water bodies is the home of Lakshadweep?
A. Arabian Sea
B. Bay of Bengal
C. Indian Ocean
D. Atlantic Ocean
3. Which of the following region supports the Karewa formation?
A. North-eastern Himalayas
B. Himachal-Uttaranchal Himalayas
C. Eastern Himalayas
D. Kashmir Himalayas
4. Where is the Loktak Lake situated?
5. Which of the following water bodies separates the Andaman from the Nicobar?
A. 11° Channel
B. Gulf of Mannar
C. 10° Channel
D. Andaman Sea
GK Questions and Answers on Rivers of India
6. Which of the following hill ranges dominated by the ‘Doddabetta’ peak?
A. Nilgiri hills
B. Anaimalai hills
C. Cardamom hills
D. Nallamala hills
7, Which of the following river has the largest river basin in India?
A. The Indus
B. The Ganga
C. The Brahmaputra
D. The Krishna
8. Which of the following rivers is not part of ‘Panchnad’?
A. The Ravi
B. The Indus
C. The Chenab
D. The Jhelum
9. Which of the following rivers flows in a rift valley?
A. The Son
B. The Yamuna
C. The Narmada
D. The Luni
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