Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF

Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF

Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF

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Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF:- Today we are sharing Most Important Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF. This Most Important Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF for upcoming examination like 1st grade Teacher, SSC CGL, BANK, RAILWAYS, RRB NTPC, LIC AAO, etc. Exams are starting after a few months. In those exams, a lot of questions are coming from Most Important Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF, so Most Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF for UPSC Download is important in all exams. In Our Website providing you an Important PDF of Important Psychology Personality Handwritten Notes in English PDF which is helpful for students who preparing for all such competitive exams.

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Most Important Psychology Personality Question Answer

Q 1.What is self? How does the Indian notion of self differ from the Western notion?

Ans. Self is an organized cognitive structure. It can be understood in terms of subject and object or I and Me. It refers to the totality of one’s conscious thoughts, and feelings which pertain to one’s own self. .
Indian Concept of Self
•Self is characterized by the shifting nature of the boundaries.
•The Indian view does not make rigid dichotomies.
•It is based on collectivistic Indian society.
Western Concept of Self
•The boundaries between self and the group are rigid.
•It holds clear dichotomies between self and group.
•It is based on individualistic society of the West.

Q 2. What is meant by delay of gratification? Why is it considered important for adult development?

Ans. (i) Learning to delay or defer from gratification of needs is called self-control. It emerges from self-regulation.
(ii)Self-regulation is behavioural component of self.
(iii)It refers to an ability to organize and monitor ones own behaviour. People who can change their behaviour according to the demands of the external environment are high on self-monitoring.
(iv)Self-regulation leads to self-control.
(v)It plays a key role in fulfilment of long-term goals.
(vi)Indian culture provides us effective mechanisms like fasting (vrata or roza) and non-attachment with worldly things to develop self-control.
(vii)It is ones ability to say ‘No’.
Psychological techniques to develop self-control are:
(a)Observation of Own Behaviour: it provides us with necessary information that may be used to change, modify, or strengthen certain concepts of self. ‘
(b)Self-instruction: We often instruct ourselves to do something and behave the way we want.
(c)Self-reinforcement: It involves rewarding behaviours that have pleasant outcomes (like going to see a-movie with friends if we do well in exams).
— Self-control is important for the development of mature personality. This is the reason that all cultures emphasise the self-control. It helps in the fulfilment of long-term goals. Indian cultural tradition provide us with certain effective mechanisms, e.g., fasting in varta or roja and know attachment with worldly things for developing self-control.
— Self-control is also important for effective functioning of social network.

Q 3. How do you define personality? What are the main approaches to the study of personali

Ans. The word ‘personality’ is derived from the Latin word ‘persona’, which means a mask or false face which Greek actors used to wear when acting on stage. According to Gordon Allport “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems thqt determine his unique adjustments to his environment.”
One of the major approaches to understanding personality was to develop theories on what it was. There are many broad personality theories, which can be grouped into four categories: –
(i)Dynamic approaches, which emphasize on-going interaction among motives, impulses and psychological processes.
(ii)Type and train approaches, which focus on people’s characteristics, stubbornness, shyness and so forth and how these characteristics are organized into systems.
(iii)Humanistic approaches, which emphasize the self and the importance of the individual’s subjective view of the world.
(iv) Learning and behavioural approaches, which emphasize the way habits are acquired through basic learning process.

Q 4. What is trait approach to personality? How does it differ from type approach?

Ans. Trait approach psychologists explain personality on the basis of specific psychological characteristics.
Type approach psychologists believe that personality can be classified into broad categories.
Traits are relatively stable, persistent and characteristic patterns of behaviour which makes the individual different from others.
(i)These are overlapping, i.e., inclusive in nature.
(ii)Traits are specific psychological characteristics, e.g., shy or timid.
Types are cluster of similar traits.
(i)These are broad categories. .
(ii)These do not overlap, i.e., exclusive in nature, e.g., extrovert or introvert.

Q 5. How does Freud explain the structure of personality?

Ans. The Id:
(i) The Id is the original source of personality, present in the newborn infant, from which the ego and super ego later develop.
(ii) It consists of everything that is inherited, including the instinctual drives—sex and
(iii) It is closely linked to the biological processes and provides the energy source—the libido for the operation of all three systems.
(iv) It is totally unconscious and works on pleasure principles regardless of any,external potential costs of seeking the gratification of impulses.
The Ego:
(i) The ego develops out of Id because of the necessity for dealing with the real world. The ego’s task is to hold the Id in check until conditions allows for satisfaction of its impulses.
(ii) It operates on reality principles. For example, a hungry man would want to have food at any cost due to id impulses, but it is the ego which delays tl’ i hunger impulse until the appropriate conditions are found.
(iii)The ego is essentially the executive of the personality. It keeps a person working for a living, getting along with people and generally adjusting to the realities of life.
(iv) Ego mediates between the demands of id, the realities of the world and the demands of the super ego.
The Super Ego:
(i)It is related to the values and morals of the society as taught to us by our parents and others. It works according to social norms.
(ii)It is concerned with morality—whether various ways that could satisfy id impulses are right or wrong.
The main functions of the super ego are:
(i) To inhibit the unacceptable impulses of Id such as sex and aggression.
(ii)Freud assumed that Id is energised by two instinctual forces, called life instinct and death instinct. Life instinct is individuals, tendency to construct whereas death instinct is for the destruction. According to Freud, life instinct is more dominant among human beings.
According to Freud, the instinctual life force that energises the Id is called Libido.
It works on the pleasure principle, and seeks immediate gratification. It is source of energy.

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Most Important Psychology Personality Question Answer

Q 6. How would Horney’s explanation of depression be different from that of Alfred Adler?

Ans. While Karen Horney focuses more on interpersonal relationships during childhood, Alfred gives greater importance to personal goals of an individual.
There are, in my opinion, Horney would attribute the cause of depression to parental relations with children which are characterized by excessive interference or indifference. Deep anxiety would result from the behaviour rewards the child which, if is erratic, indifferent and discouraging feelings of isolation and helplessness will also emerge. Alfred Adler would, on the other hand, attribute depression to the feeling of inadequacy and guilt arising within the individual, due to the inability to achieve his/her personal goals. These goals provide an individual with security and are important in overcoming feelings of inadequacy. If individual is not able to attain the goals and could not overcome inferiority appropriately then it leads to depression.

Q 7.Arihant wants to become a singer even though he belongs to a family of doctors. Though his family members claim to love him but strongly disapprove his choice of career. Using Carl Rogers’ terminology, describe the attitudes shown by Arihant’s family.

Ans. Arihant wants to become a singer even though he belongs to a family of doctors. His family ‘claims’ to love him, but disapproves of his choice of career.
This fact warrants my attention towards an important terminology given by Carl Rogers, i.e., unconditional positive regard.
As the desire of Arihant to become a singer is contradicted by his family, it results in a situation of negative social conditions which will reduce his level of self-concept and self¬esteem.
His inability to fulfil his goal will prevent him from becoming a ‘fully functioning person’. Moreover, his conception of an ‘ideal self involves him being a singer, while his ‘real self is not one due to familial pressure. This discrepancy between the real and ideal self results in dissatisfaction and unhappiness.
The provision of unconditional positive regard which includes empathy, love and warmth irrespective of other factors is necessary for Arihant.

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