Polity & Governance MCQs pdf for RAS Prelims
Today we are sharing Polity & Governance MCQs pdf for RAS Prelims. This Polity & Governance MCQs pdf for RAS Prelims exam.
1. Fundamental Rights and the Constitution:
The core guidelines and framework of government are laid out in the constitution.
Individual liberties, such as the right to equality, freedom, and protection from discrimination, are guaranteed by fundamental rights.
2. The division of powers
To prevent the misuse of power, the government’s functions are separated into three branches: the executive, legislature, and judiciary.
India is a federal republic where the federal government and the states have equal power.
consists of the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha (House of the People).
accountable for passing laws, speaking on behalf of citizens, and controlling the executive branch.
5. The President
the nominal ruler of the state, who has few powers.
executes laws, selects officials, and speaks for India abroad.
6. The Council of Ministers and the Prime Minister
The Prime Minister is the head of state and the leader of the Lok Sabha majority party.
The Prime Minister receives decision-making support from the Council of Ministers.
The rule of law is upheld by the Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the land.
guarantees the validity of legislation and defends the rights of citizens.
8. State Administrations:
The legislative, executive branch, and judiciary are separate in each state.
accountable for problems that are not expressly within the purview of the central government.
9. Local governance and panchayati raj:
Decentralized government through locally elected authorities to ensure local engagement and growth.
10. Elections are held regularly at various levels in India’s parliamentary democracy.
Elections and Political Parties: Political parties are important in elections.
13. Constitutional Organizations: Institutions that uphold the integrity of government include the Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG), and Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
Accountability and openness are key components of good governance, as are citizen involvement and accountability.
15. Public Policy and Welfare Programs: The government creates programs to deal with issues that are related to social, economic, and developmental concerns.
16. Challenges and changes: Corruption, inefficiency, and regional imbalances are problems that the governance system must address through changes for better management.
17. International ties and Foreign Policy: The government oversees trade, international collaboration, and diplomatic ties.
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Most Important Polity & Governance Question Answer
Features borrowed From the United Kingdom;
• Nominal Head – President (like Queen)
• Cabinet System of Ministers
• Post of PM
• Parliamentary Type of Govt.
• Bicameral Parliament
• Lower House is more powerful
• Council of Ministers responsible to Lower House
• Speaker in Lok Sabha
Features borrowed From the U.S.A.
• Written Constitution
• Executive head of state known as President and his being the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces
• Vice-President as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha
• Fundamental Rights
• Supreme Court
• Provision of States
• Independence of Judiciary and judicial review
• Removal of Supreme Court and High Court Judges
Features borrowed From USSR
• Fundamental Duties
• Five-year Plan
Features borrowed From Australia
• Concurrent list
• Language of the preamble
Features borrowed From Japan
• Laws on which the Supreme Court functions
From the Weimar Constitution of Germany
• Suspension of Fundamental Rights during the emergency
Features borrowed From Canada
• Scheme of federation with a strong centre
• Distribution of powers between the centre and the states
• And placing residuary powers with the centre
Features borrowed From Ireland
• Concept of Directive Principles of States Policy (Ireland borrowed it from SPAIN)
• Method of election of President
• Nomination of members in the Rajya Sabha by the President
Panchayati Raj System in India
Salient Features of the Constitution
Single Constitution for both Union and States: India has a single Constitution for Union and all the States. The Constitution promotes the unity and convergence of the ideals of nationalism. The single Constitution empowers only the Parliament of India to make changes in the Constitution. It empowers the Parliament even to create a new state or abolish an existing state or alter its boundaries.
Sources of the Constitution: The Indian Constitution has borrowed provisions from various countries and modified them according to the suitability and requirements of the country. The structural part of the Constitution of India has been derived from the Government of India Act, of 1935. The provisions such as the Parliamentary System of Government and Rule of Law have been adopted by the United Kingdom.
Rigidity and Flexibility: The Constitution of India is neither rigid nor flexible. A Rigid Constitution means that special procedures are required for its amendments whereas a Flexible Constitution is one in which the constitution can be amended easily.
Secular State: The term secular state means that all the religions present in India get equal protection and support from the state. In addition; it provides equal treatment to all religions by the government and equal opportunities for all religions.
Federalism in India: The Constitution of India provides for the division of power between the Union and the State governments. It also fulfils some other features of federalism such as the rigidity of the constitution, written constitution, a bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, and supremacy of the constitution. Thus, India has a Federal System with unitary bias.
Parliamentary Form of Government: India has a Parliamentary Form of Government. India has a Bicameral Legislature with two houses named Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. In the Parliamentary Form of Government; there is no clear-cut separation of powers between Legislative and Executive organs. In India; the head of the government is Prime Minister.
Single Citizenship: Constitution of India provides for single citizenship to every individual in the country. No state in India can discriminate against an individual of another state. Moreover, in India, an individual has the right to move to any part of the country or live anywhere in the territory of India except certain places.
Integrated and Independent Judiciary: The Constitution of India provides for an integrated and independent judicial system. The Supreme Court is the highest court of India with authority over all the other courts in India followed by high courts, district courts, and lower courts. To protect the Judiciary from any influence, the Constitution has laid down certain provisions such as Security of Tenure and Fixed Service Conditions for judges, etc.
Directive Principles of State Policy: Part IV (Articles 36 to 50) of the Constitution mentions the Directive Principles of State Policy. These are non-justifiable in nature and are broadly classified into Socialistic, Gandhian, and Liberal-intellectual.
Fundamental Duties: These were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1976). A new Part IV-A was created for the purpose and 10 duties were incorporated under Article 51-A. The provision reminds the citizens that while enjoying rights, they should also perform their duties.
Universal Adult Franchise: In India, every citizen who is above the age of 18 years has the right to vote without any discrimination on the ground of caste, race, religion, sex, literacy etc. The universal adult franchise removes social inequalities and maintains the principle of political equality for all citizens.
Emergency Provisions: The President is empowered to take certain steps to tackle any extraordinary situation to maintain the sovereignty, security, unity, and integrity of the nation. The states become totally subordinate to the Central Government when an emergency is imposed. According to the need; an emergency can be imposed in parts or the whole of the country.
The Constitution of India thus stands as an embodiment of democracy, fundamental rights, and decentralization of power to the lowest or to the grass-root level. In order to protect against any possible dilution of these powers and rights, it has set up the Supreme Court to function as the guardian of the Constitution with the power to invalidate any legislation or executive act if it violates the Constitution and thus affirms and enforces the supremacy of the Constitution.
Most Important Polity & Governance Question Answer
Q 1) Which of the following commission was appointed by the Central Government on Union-State relations in 1983?
a. Sarkariya commission
b. Dutt commission
c. Setalvad commission
d. Rajamannar commission
Explanation: Sarkaria Commission was set up in 1983 by the central government of India to examine the central-state relationship on various portfolios. Justice Ranjit Singh Sarkaria (Chairman of the commission), was a retired judge of the Supreme Court of India.
Q 2) Which of the following taxes are levied by the Union government but collected and appropriated by the states?
a. Stamp duties
b. Excise duties on medical and toilet materials
c. Sales tax
d. a and b
Explanation: The revenue generated from the Stamp duties and Excise duties on medical and toilet materials is imposed by the Central Government but collected and kept by the respective state government.
Q 3) Which of the following taxes are imposed and collected by the state government?
a. Estate duty
b. Sales tax
c. Land revenue
d. All the above
Explanation: Taxes imposed by the state government are; Sales Tax and VAT, Professional Tax, Luxury Tax, Entertainment Tax, Motor Vehicles Tax, Tax on Vehicles Entering State, Tax on Agricultural Income, Tax on Land and Buildings and Tax on Mineral Rights.
Q 4) Which of the following tax is levied and collected by the Union government but the proceeds are distributed between the Union and states?
a. Sales tax
b. Income tax
c. Estate duty
d. Land revenue
Explanation: Income tax is imposed by the central government under the Income Tax Act, 1961. This tax is distributed among the states on the recommendations of the finance commission.
Q 5) Which of the following duty is levied and collected by the Union government?
a. Custom duty
b. Excise duty
c. Estate duty
d. All the above
Explanation: All the direct taxes are imposed by the central government. Direct taxes are; income tax, wealth tax, corporation tax. Excise and custom duty were indirect tax but merged with GST.
Q 6) Which of the article deals with the grants in aid by the Union government to the states?
a. Article 270
b. Article 280
c. Article 275
d. Article 265
Explanation: Article 275 is related to Grants in aid from the Union government to certain States at the time of requirement.This fund allocation depends on the discretion of the central government. It shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.
Q 7) Which of the following article deals with the election of the Vice-president?
a. Article 64
b. Article 68
c. Article 66
d. Article 62
Explanation: Article 66 deals with the election of the Vice-president of India.
Q 8) Who can remove the Vice-President from his office?
b. Prime minister
d. Legislative assemblies of the state
Explanation: The Indian Parliament has the power to remove the Vice President of India.
Q 9) The term of office of the Vice-president is as follows?
a. 6 years
b. 4 years
c. 7 years
d. 5 years
Explanation: The Vice-president is elected for the period of the 5 years, although he/she can resign before the completion of the tenure.
Q 10) The Vice-President is the Ex-Officio Chairman of the ……..?
a. Rajya Sabha
b. Lok Sabha
c. Planning Commission
d. National Development Council
Explanation: The Vice-President is ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha and acts as President when the latter is unable to discharge his functions due to absence, illness or any other cause.
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