Medieval History PDF Notes in English for RAS

Medieval History PDF Notes in English for RAS

Medieval History PDF Notes in English for RAS

Hello Aspirants,

Medieval history refers to the period in history between the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and the beginning of the Early Modern period in the 15th century AD. Here are some key points about medieval history:

  1. Early Medieval Period:
    • The Early Medieval Period, also known as the Dark Ages, was marked by the decline of the Western Roman Empire and the subsequent period of political fragmentation in Europe.
    • Barbarian invasions, such as those by the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, and Vikings, had a significant impact on Europe during this time.
  2. Byzantine Empire:
    • The Byzantine Empire, with its capital at Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), emerged as the successor to the Eastern Roman Empire.
    • It preserved many aspects of Roman culture, laws, and administrative systems and played a vital role in preserving and transmitting ancient Greek knowledge and texts.
  3. Islamic Civilization:
    • The rise of Islam in the 7th century led to the establishment of a vast Islamic civilization, which expanded across the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain.
    • Islamic scholars made significant contributions to various fields, including mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy.
  4. Feudalism:
    • Feudalism was a social and economic system that characterized much of medieval Europe.
    • It involved the exchange of land for military service and loyalty, with kings and lords granting land (fiefs) to vassals in exchange for their support and services.
  5. Crusades:
    • The Crusades were a series of military expeditions undertaken by Christian armies from Europe to the Holy Land (Jerusalem) between the 11th and 13th centuries.
    • The Crusades had religious, economic, and political motivations, and they had a lasting impact on European and Middle Eastern societies.
  6. Medieval Kingdoms and Empires:
    • Several medieval kingdoms and empires emerged during this period, including the Carolingian Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, and Kingdom of Spain.
  7. Gothic Architecture:
    • Gothic architecture emerged during the medieval period and is characterized by pointed arches, ribbed vaults, and flying buttresses.
    • Examples of Gothic architecture include Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris and Chartres Cathedral in France.
  8. Magna Carta:
    • The Magna Carta, signed in 1215, was a significant document in medieval England that limited the power of the king and established the principle of the rule of law.
  9. Renaissance:
    • Towards the end of the medieval period, the Renaissance emerged as a cultural and intellectual movement that marked the transition to the Early Modern period.
    • The Renaissance saw a revival of interest in classical learning, arts, and sciences.

These are just a few key points about medieval history. The medieval period was diverse and witnessed significant political, social, religious, and cultural changes across different regions of the world. Further exploration of specific events, kingdoms, and civilizations will provide a deeper understanding of this fascinating era.

Download GK Notes 

Important Medieval History Question And Answer

1.During the invasion of Mohammed Bin Kasim, many Hindus in Sindh were forcibly converted to Islam. They were recoverted to Hinduism by the authority of __?
[A] Devala Smriti
[B] Narada Smriti
[C] Visnu Smriti
[D] Yajnavalkya Smriti

Answer: A [Devala Smriti]
During the invasion of Mohammed Bin Kasim in ad 712 many Hindus in Sindh were converted to Islam through questionable means. All of them were reconverted to Hinduism on the authority of Deval Smriti written by Deval Rishi. Deval smriti writes down rules for reconversion into Hindu fold of the Hindus forcibly converted into Islam if someone showed his or her desire to be reconverted to Hinduism with due atonement.
2.Which of the following battles is subject matter of Alha Khand, a 12th Century epic poetic work in Hindi?
[A] Battle of Mandsaur
[B] Battle of Chittor
[C] Battle of Mahoba
[D] Battles of Tarain

Answer: C [Battle of Mahoba]
Paradidev (Parmal) who fought Prithviraj Chauhan-III in 1182 AD in the Battle of Mahoba. This battle is the subject matter of the Alha Khand (c. 12th Century) is an early poetic work in Hindi which consists of a number of ballads describing the brave acts
3.Who among the following is associated with translation of Rajatarangini in Persian?
[A] Dara Shikoh
[B] Zain-ul-Abidin
[C] Abdul Razzaq Jilani
[D] Bande Nawaz

Answer: B [Zain-ul-Abidin]
Rajatarangini is a metrical legendary and historical chronicle of the north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir. It was written in Sanskrit by Kashmiri historian Kalhana in the 12th century CE. It was translated into Persian by the orders of the later Muslim ruler Zain-ul-Abidin.
4.Who wrote famous Hindi work “Padmavat”?
[A] Malik Muhammad Jayasi
[B] Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana
[C] Amir Khusro
[D] Bulleh Shah

Answer: A [Malik Muhammad Jayasi]
Padmavat of Malik Muhammad Jayasi is a poem about the beauty and Jauhar of Padmani.
5.That part of land granted by the sultan to military chiefs for maintenance of a given number of troopers called ?
[A] Muahatsib
[B] Iqta
[C] Nazir
[D] Usharaf

Answer: B [Iqta]
Iqta referred to that part of land granted by the sultan to its military chiefs for maintenance of troopers.
6. Which type of coins were issued by the king of Vijayanagar empire, Tirumala Raya ?
[A] Varaha
[B] Garuda
[C] BalaKrishna
[D] Hanuman

Answer: A [Varaha ]
Inscriptions tells that “Varaha”, a gold coin with an approximate weight of 3.4 grams ( 52 grains), was made the basic monetary unit in the Vijayanagar empire. These coins were issued by Tirumala Raya, the first Crowned King from the Aravidu Dynasty
7.The Nathpanthis, Siddhacharas and Yogi advocated salvation through _?
[A] Meditation
[B] Knowledge
[C] Sacrifices
[D] Self-effort

Answer: A [ Meditation]
The Nathpanthis, Siddhacharas and Yogi advocated salvation through meditation.
8.Kalhana’s Rajatrangini is written in which language?
[A] Persian
[B] Sanskrit
[C] Farsi
[D] Devnagri

Answer: B [Sanskrit]
Kalhana composed a chronicle of the kings of Kashmir in Sanskrit, which is known as Rajatrangini. The work consists of 7826 verses, which are divided into eight books called Tarangas.
9.Which of the following is an account of the life and reign of Sher Shah between 1539 and 1545?
[A] Rajatarangini
[B] Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi
[C] Sher-e-Sultin
[D] Miftah-ul-Futuh

Answer: B [Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi]
Tarikh-i-Sher Shahi was written by Abbas Khan Sarwani. He was a descendant of an Afghan noble, in the service of Sultan Sher Shah. Abbas Khan Sarwani himself was in the service of emperor Akbar. It talks of the reign of Sher Shah and his successors.
10.Which of these is the correct meaning of the term Mamluk in context with medieval India?
[A] Slave
[B] Owned
[C] king
[D] invader

Answer: B [Owned]
The word Mamluk means “owned”. Mamluk were slave soldier. In practice, a Mamluk could not pass his property or title to his son and hence the group had to be constantly replenished from outside sources. Mamluk sultans or slave dynasty ruled Delhi from 1206AD to 1290 AD and the founder of this dynasty was Qutubuddin Aibak.

11.Which of the following is important source material for the history of Gujarat from the beginning of the Muslim rule?
[A] Mirat-i-Sikanderi
[B] Tazkirat-ul-Muluk
[C] Mirat-i-Ahmadi
[D] Burhan-i-ma’asir

Answer: C [Mirat-i-Ahmadi]
The Mirat-i-Ahmadi was written by Diwan Ali Muhammad Khan. Sometimes referred to as “a Persian History of Gujarat”, it is described as a very extensive and rare history of Gujarat because of the statistical information it supplies.
12.Which of the following is commissioned work on Aurangazeb, which was later forbidden before completion?
[A] Ma’asir-i-Alamgiri
[B] Alamgirnama
[C] Futuhat-i-Almgiri
[D] Muntakhab-ul-Lubab

Answer: B [Alamgirnama]
Muhammad Qazim was appointed Munshi by Aurangzeb in the first year of his reign and was later on commissioned by the emperor to complete the annals of his reign. After the eleventh year, up to which point Muhammad Qazim recorded his history, Aurangzeb forbade its continuation. On the manuscript being shown to Aurangzeb, he withdrew his permission for the preparation of this official history. Alamgirnama is a good detailed history of the first ten years of Aurangzeb’s reign from 1658 to 1668.
13.Which of the following was the key objective of invasion of Mohammad Ghori on India?
[A] Loot and Plunder wealth of India
[B] To expand the Ghurid Empire
[C] To spread Islam by Sword
[D] To punish Rajputs who attacked his dominions

Answer: B [To expand the Ghurid Empire]
The major objective of Ghori to attack India was to expand his empire and satisfy his imperialistic ambitions. The expansion of Islam and his ambition to glorify his name through his military exploits could be said to be his secondary aims. Similarly, loot and plunder may also be secondary aims because that was norm in those days to acquire Gold and wealth from defeated rulers.
14.In his initial attacks on India from northern frontiers, Mohammad Ghori chose which of the following passes?
[A] Khyber Pass
[B] Gomal Pass
[C] Hajigak Pass
[D] Bolan Pass

Answer: B [Gomal Pass]
One difference between invasions of Mohammad Ghori and Mahmud Ghazni was that while the former used Khyber Pass as the route for making entrance into India; the later chose Gomal Pass. This pass is located between Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass and connects Ghazni in Afghanistan with Tank and Dera Ismail Khan in Pakistan. Ghori chose it because according to him it was safer and shorter route. The primary reason to avoid Khyber Pass region was that it was still defended by Ghaznavi rulers and Ghori did not want a direct class with Ghaznavids at that time. The selection of this pass meant that the Multan and Uchh were the first to fall on his way and thus were won first. He entered through Khyber pass only after the crushing defeat from Mulraj-II / Bhima-II of Gujarat.
15.Tarikh-i-Guzidah is written by which of the following authors?
[A] Ata Malik Juwaini
[B] Hamdullah Mastauti Qazwini
[C] Ziyauddin Barani
[D] Ibn-ul-Asir

Answer: B [Hamdullah Mastauti Qazwini]
Studies on medieval India reflect various trends and methods of history writing. In the early fourteenth century, Hamdullah Mastauti Qazwini wrote the book Tarikh-i-Guzidah. This book is known for its impressive account of the general history of the East.
16.Which of the following was the author of ‘Muntakhab-ul-Lubab’?
[A] Mirza Muhammad Kazim
[B] Muhammad Saqi Mustaid Khan
[C] Khafi Khan
[D] Ishwardas Nagaur

Answer: C [Khafi Khan]
Muntakhab-ul-Lubab was authored by Khafi Khan. It covers Aurangzeb’s lifetime, besides proffering the results of his political measures. It is written Persian.
17.Ghaznavid Empire was defeated by which of the following at the Battle of Dandanqan?
[A] Seljuk Turks
[B] Rajputs
[C] Arabs
[D] None of the above

Answer: A [Seljuk Turks]
The Battle of Dandanaqan was fought in 1040 A.D. between the Seljuqs Turks and the Ghaznavid Empire near the city of Merv. Masud suffered a disastrous defeat at the Battle of Dandanqan resulting in the loss of all Ghaznavid territories in Iran and Central Asia to the Seljuqs.
18.Seljuq defeat led to a struggle for power among which of the following kingdoms?
1) The Karakitai
2) The Khwarezm-Shahs
3) The Ghurids
Select the correct option from the codes given below:
[A] Only 1 & 3
[B] Only 1 & 2
[C] Only 2 & 3
[D] 1, 2 & 3

Answer: D [1, 2 & 3]
Iran and parts of Afghanistan were under the rule of Seljuq for over fifty years. After the defeat of Seljuq in 1141 CE led to a struggle for power among the Karakitai, the Khwarezm-Shahs, and the Ghurids over parts of Central Asia and Iran.
19.Which of the following completed the construction of the Qutab Minar at Delhi?
[A] Qutbuddin Aibak
[B] Iltutmish
[C] Firuz Shah
[D] Bahram Shah

Answer: B [Iltutmish]
Iltutmish is considered as the father of tomb building (Sultangarhi in Delhi). He completed the construction of the Qutab Minar at Delhi. Qutub Minar is the tallest stone tower in India (238 ft.).
20.Which Sultan of Mamluk Dynasty was in power for longest period?
[A] Nasiruddin Mahmud
[B] Balban
[C] Iltutmish
[D] Bahram Shah

Answer: C [Iltutmish]
Iltutmish was in power from 1211 to 1236 (25 years); Balban was in power from 1266 to 1287 (21 years); while Nasiruddin Mahmud ruled from 1246 to 1266 (20 years). These were three longest serving Mamluk sultans of Delhi Sultanate.

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