Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English

Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English

Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English

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Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English:- Today we are sharing Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English. This Most Important Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English for upcoming examination like 1st grade Teacher, SSC CGL, BANK, RAILWAYS, RRB NTPC, LIC AAO, etc. Exams are starting after a few months. In those exams, a lot of questions are coming from Most Important Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English, so Most Plato to Logical Atomism Notes pdf in English for UPSC Download is important in all exams. In Our Pdfdownload.in Website providing you an Important PDF of Important Logical Atomism to Sartre handwritten notes pdf in English which is helpful for students who preparing for all such competitive exams.

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Most Important Logical Atomism to Sartre Question Answer


The philosophical ideas have to be understood historically. The social context plays a crucial role in understanding the ideas of philosophers. In fact, our ideas emerged out of social tensions and chaos of the world. Philosophy is a social expression of this situation and provides comprehensive understanding of social reality. Philosophical ideas not only provide clarification but also lead for betterment of life. In other words, philosophers prompt a direction for humanity by providing the comprehensive and critical understanding of the world in which they live. Historically, Western philosophy has enriched by many philosophers of western countries. In ancient times, Greco-Romans are the leading philosophers. In medieval times, the Greek philosophy has influenced the religion and comes with philosophy of religion. The modern philosophy developed with industrial revolution of the west. Though British, German and French
and American and other European nations have different social and political contexts, there are efforts to construct philosophical thought of these as western. Within west, we may find different philosophical traditions with different styles of doing philosophy and at the same time we may find some kind of convergence of philosophical thought commonly identified as western philosophy. The western philosophy finds its roots in Greek philosophy of 6th century B.C. Greek philosophy has considered as a starting point for western philosophy. The later philosophy has shaped by this philosophy. In other words, the very definition and nature of philosophy of west has identified, continued and developed further from the Greek philosophy. The Greek philosophy has not only speculated about the world, but also tries to differ from the religion and theology. It has its roots in naturalism and critical about prejudice, beliefs and tradition. ‘From the very
beginning, Greek philosophy was an intellectual activity, for it was not a matter only of seeing or believing but of thinking , and philosophy meant thinking about basic questions in a mood ofgenuine and free inquiry.’


Though it is a difficult task to characterize or identify the specific features of western philosophy, but we may mark some common features marked with western philosophy. Philosophical traditions may vary from ancient Greek philosophy to contemporary western
philosophy, but there are efforts to construct the essential features of western philosophy. The idea of west got its prominence and distinctiveness in relation to other Afro-Asian nations, whichare under the control of colonial rule of west. The following are some of the features of western philosophy:

Philosophy as an Intellectual Speculation

From the beginning, western philosophy characterizes as an intellectual enterprises in understanding the social reality. As Bertrand Russell viewed philosophy is somethingintermediate between theology and science. Like theology, it consists of speculations on matters
as to which definite knowledge has so far, been unascertainable; like science, it appeals to human reason rather than to authority, weather that of tradition or that of revelation. As Russell argues all definite knowledge belonged to science, and all dogma as to what surpasses definite knowledge belonged to theology. All the questions of the most interest to speculative minds are such as science can not answer, and the confident answers of theologians no longer seem so convincing as they did in earlier times. Western philosophy from its very beginning maintained that philosophy is distinct from science and theology. Science is the realm of empirical investigation and attempts to understand the world explain the observable events and formulate the laws of nature, and a human experience has explained accordingly. We also find some of the questions answered differently from this. In some occasions the questions generated by science
may pass beyond its ability to solve them. There are attempts to understand the world as whole and some times beyond this empirical phenomenon. The final cause and meaning of the world have been found by invoking God, or universal idea or a supreme principle. This kind of inquiry in understanding the world has treated as metaphysical. This may have convergence with religion and faith. In other words, it is justifying the central claims of religion by providing a rational grounding.

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Most Important Logical Atomism to Sartre Question Answer

Comprehensive Understanding

Socrates developed dialectic as a method of argumentation. Plato brought together all the major concerns of human thought into a coherent organization of knowledge. This comprehensive understanding of reality become a feature of western philosophy and had influence on later philosophers of west. The history of western philosophy reveals that, Plato has critically apprised. As whitehead
remarked that ‘the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato.’ The earliest philosophers, the Milesians were concerned chiefly with the constitution of physical nature, not with foundations of morality. Similarly, the Eleatic philosophers Parmenides and zeno were interested chiefly in arguing that reality consists of changeless, single reality, the one. Heraclitus and Pythagorean, on the other hand, considered reality as always changing, full of flux, and consisting of a vast multitude of different things. Socrates and sophists showed less interest in physical nature and instead, steered philosophy into arena of morality. Plato’s great influence stems from the manner in which he brought all these diverse philosophic concerns into a unified system of thought. Plato argues that the kind of knowledge that helps one to distinguish between shadows, reflections, and real objects in the visible world is just the kind of knowledge that man needs to discriminate the shadows and reflections of the genuinely good life. Plato had argued that the truth of the world is not revealed to ordinary sense perception, but to reason alone; the truths of reason are necessary,
eternal and a priori; that through the cultivation of reason man can come to understand himself, God, and world as these things are in themselves, freed from shadowy overcast experience.


Skepticism is doubting or denying the possibility of attaining true knowledge. In ancient Greece, the sophists provide their argument based on skepticism. The modern skepticism is associated with Hume, and J.S.Mill. It is reaction against dogmatic metaphysics and is the logical consequence of a through –going empiricism. Descartes introduced the method of doubt, which has influenced the western philosophy significantly. He considered doubt is the source of knowledge. To doubt was not an end in itself; it was a process of purification, of eliminating various false hoods, and of ultimately arriving at an unshakable foundations of truth. In fact, our doubt implies the reality of our thoughts. Doubting means thinking, this implies a self consciousness. Cogito ergo sum (I think therefore I am).Descartes regarded it as primary truth of reason. For Locke, skepticism was not an end in itself; it was prelude to a more scientific philosophy. Though out the western philosophy, one form or other skepticism has becomes one of its features. In fact, Western philosophy has progressed further with skepticism.

Scientific Method

Rational understanding of the world has one of the dominant features of philosophy. The rational understanding has enriched with scientific method against dogmatic and orthodox religious traditions. Descartes was a founder of seventeenth century continental rationalism. It was Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz fashioned a new ideal for philosophy. In the wake of developments in science, it was inevitably philosophy was affected by this new ways of discovering facts. The early modern philosophers considered the methods of science a fresh way of developing knowledge.

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