Indian Geography handwritten notes pdf in (English) RAS

Indian Geography handwritten notes pdf in (English) RAS

Indian Geography handwritten notes pdf in (English) RAS

Hello Aspirants,

  1. Location and Borders:
    • India is located in South Asia and is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast.
    • It shares its land borders with Pakistan to the northwest, China and Nepal to the north, Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east.
  2. Physical Features:
    • The geography of India is diverse and characterized by several physical features. The northern part is dominated by the Himalayan mountain range, including the highest peak, Mount Everest.
    • The fertile Gangetic plains lie to the south of the Himalayas, followed by the plateau region in central India. The western and eastern coastal plains border the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, respectively.
  3. Rivers:
    • India is crisscrossed by numerous rivers, with the major ones being the Ganges, Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Godavari, Krishna, and Narmada.
    • These rivers play a significant role in the country’s agriculture, transportation, and hydroelectric power generation.
  4. Climate:
    • India has a diverse climate due to its vast size and varying topography. It experiences six main climate types: tropical monsoon, tropical wet and dry, arid, semi-arid, humid subtropical, and alpine.
    • The southwest monsoon, which brings heavy rainfall from June to September, is crucial for agriculture in many parts of the country.
  5. Biodiversity:
    • India is one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots, home to a wide range of flora and fauna.
    • It has diverse ecosystems, including forests, grasslands, deserts, wetlands, and coastal and marine areas, which support a rich variety of plant and animal species.
  6. States and Union Territories:
    • India is divided into 28 states and 8 union territories. Each state has its own capital and administrative structure, while the union territories are governed directly by the central government.
  7. Natural Resources:
    • India is rich in natural resources, including coal, iron ore, manganese, bauxite, limestone, and petroleum.
    • It is one of the world’s leading producers of various agricultural commodities, such as wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, and tea.
  8. Major Cities:
    • India has several major cities that serve as important economic, cultural, and political centers. Some prominent cities include New Delhi (the capital), Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad.
  9. National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries:
    • India has a network of national parks and wildlife sanctuaries to conserve its diverse wildlife. These protected areas provide habitats for endangered species such as tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses, and lions.
  10. Coastal Features:
    • India has a long coastline of about 7,500 kilometers, which is marked by various coastal features such as beaches, deltas, lagoons, coral reefs, and mangrove forests.

These are some key points about Indian geography, providing an overview of the country’s physical features, climate, biodiversity, and resources. The geography of India is vast and varied, offering a range of landscapes and ecosystems that contribute to its cultural, economic, and environmental diversity.

Download GK Notes 

Most Important Indian Geography Question Answer

Q 1.Which among the following states of India has the highest deposit of Monazite sands, source of Thorium?
[A] Tamil Nadu
[B] Kerala
[C] Maharastra
[D] Andhra Pradesh

Answer: D [Andhra Pradesh]
With 3.72 million tonnes, Andhra Pradesh is the top state in India in terms of Monazite deposits. Andhra Pradesh is followed by Tamil Nadu (2.46 million tonnes), Odisha (2.41 million tonnes), Kerala (1.90 million tonnes), West Bengal (1.22 million tonnes) and Jharkhand (0.22 million tonnes).
Q 2.In which state Kudremukh which is famous for iron ore is located?
[A] Karnataka
[B] Bihar
[C] Odisha
[D] Assam

Answer: A [Karnataka]
Kudremukh is the name of a mountain range in Chikkamagaluru district and a small mining town in Karnataka. It is Karnataka’s second highest peak after Mullayanagiri. The Kudremukh township was developed as an Iron ore mining town to operate the public sector Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd. This company was closed in 2006 due to environmental issues.
Q 3.Bring out the incorrectly matched pair ?
[A] Baira Siul Project : Himachal Pradesh
[B] Solal Project – Jammu & Kashmir
[C] Tanakur Project – Uttar Pradesh
[D] Koel Karo Project – Bihar

Answer: D [Koel Karo Project – Bihar]
Koel Karo Project is in Jharkhand
Q 4.Most of the Jute Mills of India are located in which state:
[A] Chhattisgarh
[B] West Bengal
[C] Assam
[D] Orissa

Answer: B [West Bengal]
Q 5.In which of the following Himalaya , high peaks are very rare?
[A] Kashmir Himalaya
[B] Punjab Himalaya
[C] Kumaon Himalaya
[D] Trans Himalayas

Answer: B [Punjab Himalaya]
Notes: Pira Panjal is in kashmir Himalaya,
Nanda devi Kamet, Trishul, Badrinath & kedarnath are in Kumaon Himalayas,
Mount Everest, Makalu, Kanchanjanga, Daulagiri, Annapurna etc are in central Himalays,
K2, nangaparbat, harmosh etc. are in trans Himalaya,
Naga Hills and Patkai Bum Hills are in Assam Himalaya.
High Peaks are rare in Punjab Himalayas.
Q 6.Which among the following is a typical Monsoon vegetation in India?
[A] Tropical evergreen forests
[B] Tropical deciduous forest
[C] Tropical thorn forests
[D] Sub Tropical evergreen forests

Answer: B [Tropical deciduous forest]
Q 7.The Jakham Dam is located in which state?
[A] Madhya Pradesh
[B] Gujarat
[C] Rajasthan
[D] Uttar Pradesh

Answer: C [Rajasthan]
Notes: The Jakham Dam is located in Pratapgarh District in Rajasthan. It is built on the Jakham river, which originates from a small village Jakhamia in Chhoti Sadrisub division. The length of the Dam is 253 meters, out of which spill way is in 90 m in length.
Q 8.Which among the following states has highest population density?
[A] Maharastra
[B] Bihar
[C] West Bengal
[D] Uttar Pradesh

Answer: B [Bihar]
Notes: The population density of India in 2011 was 382 per Bihar with 1,106 population persons per is most thickly populated state followed by West Bengal (1,028) and Kerala (860).
Q 9.Mullaperiyar Dam” has been a long pending issue between which of the following two states?
[A] Karnataka & Kerala
[B] Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu
[C] Karnataka & Tamil Nadu
[D] Tamil Nadu and Kerala

Answer: D [Tamil Nadu and Kerala]
Notes: Mullaperiyar Dam is a masonry gravity dam. It is located on the Periyar River in the Indian state of Kerala. It has been a long pending issue between Tamilnadu and Kerala.
Q 10.Which of the following Monsoons account for most of the rainfall in India?
[A] North East Monsoon
[B] South West Monsoon
[C] South East Monsoon
[D] East Asia Monsoon

Answer: B [South West Monsoon]
The southwestern summer monsoons occur from July through September. Most of the rainfall in India, particularly, North, West and East, occurs due to South West Monsoon.

Q 11.Which among the following separated the Great Plains of India from the Shiwalik?
[A] Main Control Thrust
[B] Main Boundary Thrust
[C] Himalayan Frontal Fault
[D] Great Boundary Fault

Answer: C [Himalayan Frontal Fault]
Himalayan Frontal Fault (HFF) separated the Great Plains of India from the Shiwalik. The Great Plains of India is the alluvial deposits of Himalayan and the peninsular rivers and their tributaries.
Q 12.What is the approximate total length of the northern plain in India?
[A] 1500 km
[B] 1750 km
[C] 2400 km
[D] 3200 km

Answer: C [2400 km]
The approximate length of the northern plain in India is about 2400 km and the width is 145 to 480 km.
Q 13.Which of the following statements is/ are correct?
[A] Himalayas are the oldest mountains
[B] Himalayas have risen from the Tethys Sea when the sea got compressed
[C] One Himalayas were formed due to faulting of the earth’s crust
[D] All of the above

Answer: B [Himalayas have risen from the Tethys Sea when the sea got compressed]
Himalayas have risen from the Tethys Sea when the Sea got compressed.
Q 14.Which among the following glaciers are located in Karakoram Range?
1. Siachin
2. Hispara
3. Baltora
4. Khordopin
Choose the correct option from the codes given below :
[A] 1 & 2
[B] 1, 3 & 4
[C] 2, 3 & 4
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Answer: D [1, 2, 3 & 4]
The names of the glacier locate din Karakoram are Siachin, Hispara, Baltora, Khordopin, Sasaini, Biafo, Chogo Lungma etc.
Q 15.Jelep La pass is located in which of the following Himalayan regions?
[A] Punjab Himalaya
[B] Kashmir Himalaya
[C] Sikkim Himalaya
[D] Himachal Himalaya

Answer: C [Sikkim Himalaya]
Jelep La (Elevation 4,267 m or 13,999 ft) is a high mountain pass between Sikkim, India and Tibet.
Q 16.Kashmir and Kargil are connected through which of the following passes?
[A] Khardung La Pass
[B] Pirpanjal Pass
[C] Zozila Pass
[D] Pensi La Pass

Answer: D [ Pensi La Pass]
Pensi La Pass connects Kashmir and Kargil. It is situated in Jammu & Kashmir at an elevation of 4,400 meters above sea level.
Q 17.Which among the following are the famous hill stations of Maharashtra?
1. Lonavala
2. Pachmarhi
3. Amboli
4. Khandala
Choose the correct option from the codes given below :
[A] 1 & 2
[B] 1, 2 & 3
[C] 1, 3 & 4
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Answer: C [1, 3 & 4]
Notes: Pachmarhi hill station is located in Hoshangabad district of Madhya Pradesh.
Q 18.Which of the following types of vegetation are found in the cold desert region of India?
1. Himalayan moist temperate forests
2. Himalayan dry temperate forests
3. Sub-alpine forests
4. Moist as well as dry alpine scrub
Choose the correct option from the codes given below :
[A] 1 & 2
[B] 2 & 4
[C] 1, 2 & 4
[D] 1, 2, 3 & 4

Answer: D [1, 2, 3 & 4]
Notes:- The type of vegetation found in the cold desert region of India- Himalayan moist as well as dry temperate forests, Sub-alpine forests and Moist as well as dry alpine scrub.
Q 19.Which of the following is the new name of the Ross island?
[A] Mahatma Gandhi Island
[B] Abdul Kalam Island
[C] Jawaharlal Nehru Island
[D] Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island

Answer: D [Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island]
Notes:- The new name of the Ross island is Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Island. The new name was given in the year 2018. This island is a part of the South Andaman administrative area.
Q 20.Which of the following island of Assam was given the name “Peacock Island” by the British?
[A] Majuli Island
[B] Dibru Saikhowa Island
[C] Umananda Island
[D] None of the above

Answer: C [Umananda Island]
Notes:- Umananda Island was given the name “Peacock Island” by the British. It is a smallest river island in the river of Brahmaputra.

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